Advertisement

The Politics of Pure Science: Yukawa and Tomonaga

  • Morris Low

Abstract

In 1954, the U.S. Information Service (USIS) produced the film “The Yukawa Story,” which was based on the life of the Nobel Prize-winning physicist Hideki Yukawa who had recently worked in the United States and returned to Japan to great acclaim. Narrated by one of his two sons, Takaaki, the film documented the life and work of Yukawa. Takaaki relates to the audience how he faced an

Initial dilemma in reconciling his father’s world with his mother’s traditional one. He finally realizes that inductive reasoning and emotional appreciation of cultural heritages are synthesized in his parents’ lives.1

Keywords

Nobel Prize Atomic Energy Liberal Democratic Party Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Nuclear Disarmament 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 3.
    See, e.g., Hideki Yukawa, trans. L.M. Brown and R Yoshida, “Tabibito” (The Traveler) (Singapore: World Scientific, 1982);Google Scholar
  2. Hideki Yukawa, trans. John Bester, Creativity and Intuition: A Physicist Looks at East and West (Tokyo: Kodansha International, 1973).Google Scholar
  3. 4.
    Takashi Hayakawa, Nihon no jōryū shakai to keibatsu (Japan’s Social Elite and Matrimonial Influence) (Tokyo: Kadokawa Shoten, 1983), p. 232.Google Scholar
  4. 5.
    Yasutaka Tanikawa, “Introduction and Biographical Sketch,” in Hideki Yukawa, Hideki Yukawa: Scientific Works (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1979), pp. vii–viii.Google Scholar
  5. 11.
    Takeo Kuwabara, Ken Inoue, and Michiji Konuma (eds), Yukawa Hideki (Hideki Yukawa) (Tokyo: Nihon Hōsō Shuppan Kyōkai, 1984), p. 325; Yukawa, The Traveler, pp. 196–97.Google Scholar
  6. 12.
    Fumitaka Satō, Yukawa Hideki ga kangaeta koto (What Hideki Yukawa Thought) (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1985), p. 95.Google Scholar
  7. 17.
    Michiji Konuma, “Social Aspects of Japanese Particle Physics in the 1950s,” in Laurie M. Brown, Max Dresden, and Lillian Hoddeson (eds), Pions to Quarks: Particle Physics in the 1950s (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989), pp. 536–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 26.
    Satio Hayakawa, Soryushi kara uchū e: Shizen no fukasa o motomete (From Elementary Particles to Space: Searching the Depths of Nature) (Nagoya: Nagoya University Press, 1994), p. 251.Google Scholar
  9. 27.
    Masao Kobayashi, Saishō Nakasone Yasuhiro: Naikaku sōri daijin e no sokuseki (Prime Minister Yasuhiro Nakasone: The Road to the Prime Ministership) (Tsu: Ise Shinbunsha, 1985), pp. 703–709, esp. p. 703.Google Scholar
  10. 28.
    Yasuhiro Nakasone, “Kagaku Gijutsu Chō setsuritsu made no omoide” (“Memories up until the Establishment of the Science and Technology Agency”), in Science and Technology Agency, Kagaku Gijutsu Chō: 30 nen no ayumi (The Science and Technoloqy Agency: A 30 Year History) (Tokyo: Sōzō, 1986), pp. 94–95.Google Scholar
  11. 29.
    Asahi shinbun, November 15, 1953. Cited in Tetu Hirosige, Sengo Nihon no kagaku undō (Postwar Japan Science Movement) (Tokyo: Chūō Kōronsha, 1960), p. 90.Google Scholar
  12. 31.
    Jon Halliday and Gavan McCormack, Japanese Imperialism Today: “Co-Prosperitv in Greater East Asia” (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1973), pp. 107–108.Google Scholar
  13. 32.
    Mitsutomo Yuasa, Kagakushi (The History of Science) (Tokyo: Tōyō Keizai Shinpōsha, 1961), p. 318; Hirosige, Postwar Japan Science Movement, p. 90. The Research Institute was renamed the Defense Agency Technical Research Headquarters in 1959. By 1960, the budget for the institute had become over 2.1 billion yen.Google Scholar
  14. 33.
    John Welfield, An Empire in Eclipse: Japan in the Postwar American Alliance System: A Study in the Interaction of Domestic Politics and Foreiqn Policy (London: Athlone Press, 1988), p. 61.Google Scholar
  15. 34.
    Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Nihon no genshiryoku: 15 nen no ayumi, jyō (Atomic Energy in Japan: A 15 Year History, Part 1) (Tokyo: Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, 1971), p. 44.Google Scholar
  16. 37.
    Janet E. Hunter (comp.), Concise Dictionary of Modern Japanese History (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984), pp. 113–14.Google Scholar
  17. 38.
    T.J. Pempel, “The Unbundling of ‘Japan, Inc.’: The Changing Dynamics of Japanese Policy Formation,” Journal of Japanese Studies, vol. 13, no. 2 (Summer 1987), pp. 271–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 41.
    Chitoshi Yanaga, Biq Business in Japanese Politics (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1968), pp. 193–94.Google Scholar
  19. 44.
    See Michael Eckert, “Primacy Doomed to Failure: Heisenberg’s Role as Scientific Adviser for Nuclear Policy in the FRG,” Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences, vol. 21, part 1 (1990), pp. 29–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 48.
    Theodore Cohen, ed. by Herbert Passin, Remaking Japan: The American Occupation as New Deal (New York: Free Press, 1987), pp. 241–43.Google Scholar
  21. 49.
    Edward Uhlan and Dana L. Thomas, with foreword by Bob Considine, Shoriki: Miracle Man of Japan, A Biography (New York: Exposition Press, 1957), pp. 180–82, 196, 202.Google Scholar
  22. Also see Ralph Hewins, The Japanese Miracle Men (London: Secker and Warburg, 1967), pp. 441–69; Cohen, Remaking Japan, pp. 241–43.Google Scholar
  23. 62.
    For details of Kikuchi’s career, see Kikuchi Kinen Jigyōkai Henshū Iinkai (ed.), Kikuchi Seishi: Gyōseki to tsuisō (Seishi Kikuchi: Achievements and, Reminiscences) (Tokyo: Editorial Committee for the Group for the Kikuchi Memorial Project, Institute for Nuclear Study, Tokyo University, 1978).Google Scholar
  24. 65.
    Masukata Oheda, “Sin-itiro and I,” in Makinosuke Matsui and Hiroshi Ezawa (eds), Cheryl Fujimoto and Takako Sano (trans.), Sin-itiro Tomonaga: Life of a Japanese Physicist (Tokyo: MY, 1995), pp. 34–37.Google Scholar
  25. 66.
    Makinosuke Matsui (ed.), Kaisō no Tomonaga Sin-itirō (Reminiscences of Sin-itirō Tomonaga) (Tokyo: Misuzu Shobō, 1980), pp. 3–6, 8.Google Scholar
  26. 68.
    Matsui, Reminiscences, pp. 137–40, 392; Julian S. Schwinger, Tomonaga Sin-itirō: A Memorial, Two Shakers of Physics (Tokyo: Nishina Memorial Foundation, 1980), pp. 2–3;Google Scholar
  27. Sin-itirō Tomonaga, “Reminiscences,” in T. Miyazima (ed.), Scientific Papers of Tomonaga, Volume 2 (Tokyo: Misuzu Shobō, 1976), pp. 464–67;Google Scholar
  28. Minoru Kobayashi, “Riken jidai no Tomonaga san” (“Tomonaga During His Riken Days”), in Daisuke Itō (ed.), Tsuisō Tomonaga Sin-itirō (Reminiscences of Sin-itirō Tomonaga) (Tokyo: Chūō Kōronsha, 1981), pp. 67–78.Google Scholar
  29. 69.
    Sin-itirō Tomonaga, Tomonaga Sin-itirō chosaku-shū, bekkan 2: Nikki, shokan (Collected works of Sin-itiro Tomonaga, Supplementary Volume 2: Diary and Letters) (Tokyo: Misuzu Shobō, 1985), p. 130.Google Scholar
  30. 78.
    Satio Hayakawa, “Kenkyū shinkō ni tsutometa Tomonaga sensei” (“Prof. Tomonaga: A Man Who Strived for the Advancement of Research”), Kagaku (Science), vol. 49, no. 12 (December 1979), pp. 799–803, esp. p. 799.Google Scholar
  31. 82.
    For details of its history, see Institute for Nuclear Study, Tokyo University, Kakken nijū nen shi (The Twenty Year History of the Institute for Nuclear Study) (Tanashi, Tokyo: Institute for Nuclear Study, 1978).Google Scholar
  32. 83.
    Japanese Physics Committee for 1964 Peking Symposium, Working Group of Experimental Nuclear Physics, “The Establishment of the Institute for Nuclear Study at Tokyo University and Its Results,” Papers Presented at the 1964 Peking Symposium: Natural Science, Vol. 1 (Peking: Scientific and Technical Association of the People’s Republic of China, 1965), pp. 311–37, esp. pp. 311–12.Google Scholar
  33. 86.
    Goodman, “Japan Speeds,” p. 106; information pamphlet, Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, 1984; K. Nishimura and F. Sakata (eds), Introducing INS (Tokyo: Institute for Nuclear Study, 1985).Google Scholar
  34. 91.
    Chitoshi Yanaga, Big Business in Japanese Politics (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1968), pp. 195–97.Google Scholar
  35. 95.
    Nathaniel B. Thayer, How the Conservatives Rule Japan (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969, 1973), p. 25.Google Scholar
  36. 96.
    Michio Muramatsu and Ellis S. Krauss, “Bureaucrats and Politicians in Policymaking: The Case of Japan,” The American Political Science Review, vol. 78 (1984), pp. 126–46, esp. p. 143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 98.
    Yutaka Osada, “Japanese Policy Attitudes to Antarctica: Mineral Issues,” in R.A. Herr and B.W. Davis (eds), Asia in Antarctica (Canberra: Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies, Australian National University, 1994), pp. 85–92.Google Scholar
  38. 103.
    For a study of his contribution to quantum electrodynamics, see Silvan S. Schweber, QED and the Men Who Made It: Dyson, Feynman, Schwinger, and Tomonaga (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994), chapter 6.Google Scholar
  39. 107.
    Hideki Yukawa, “The Oriental Approach” (1948), reprinted in Yukawa, Creativity and Intuition, pp. 51–60, esp. p. 56.Google Scholar
  40. 108.
    Hideki Yukawa, “Modern Trend of Western Civilization and Cultural Peculiarities in Japan,” in C.A. Moore (ed.), Philosophy and Culture: East and West (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1962), pp. 188–98; Yasutaka Tanikawa, “Introduction and Biographical Sketch,” in Yukawa, Scientific Works, p. ix.Google Scholar
  41. 112.
    Mituo Taketani, Shisō o oru (The Interweaving of Ideas) (Tokyo: Asahi Shinbunsha, 1985), pp. 154–57.Google Scholar
  42. 116.
    Seitarō Nakamura, Yukawa Hideki to Tomonaga Shin-ichirō (Hideki Yukawa and Sin-itirō Tomonaga) (Tokyo: Yomiuri Shinbunsha, 1992).Google Scholar
  43. 117.
    Edwin O. Reischauer, The United States and Japan (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1965), p. 311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 124.
    Hitoshi Yoshioka, Kagakusha wa kawaru ka: Kagaku to shakai no shisō shi (Will Scientists Change?: An Intellectual History of Science and Society) (Tokyo: Shakai Shisōsha, 1984), pp. 169–70.Google Scholar
  45. 127.
    Toshiyuki Toyoda, “Scientists Look at Peace and Security,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, vol. 40, no. 2 (February 1984), pp. 16–19.Google Scholar
  46. 131.
    See Martin Bulmer, “The Rise of the Academic as Expert,” Minerva, vol. 25, no. 3 (Autumn 1987), pp. 362–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Morris Low 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Morris Low
    • 1
  1. 1.Johns Hopkins UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations