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War and Resistance

  • Borden W. PainterJr.
Part of the Italian and Italian American Studies book series (IIAS)

Abstract

The construction boom in Rome and the surrounding Agro Pontino slowed and then came to a halt after Italy’s entrance into the war on June 10, 1940. Italy had signed its Pact of Steel with Germany in May 1939, which completed the diplomatic and military alliance of the Axis powers. Mussolini had boasted throughout the 1930s of Italy’s growing military strength and the “eight million bayonets” that represented the armed strength of the nation. In fact, Italy had nowhere near that number of men in the armed services, and the military rhetoric of the Duce far exceeded his limited military resources.’ In an unusual admission, Mussolini told Hitler in 1939 that he would need three years to prepare Italy for war. Hitler had other plans and would not wait for his Italian partner. Following his August agreement with Stalin, Hitler had a free hand to invade Poland on September 1, 1939. Mussolini remained on the sidelines and declared Italy a “non-belligerent.”

Keywords

Historic Center German Occupation Italian Citizen Military Strength Armed Resistance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes

  1. 14.
    Elena Agarossi, A Nation Collapses: The Italian Surrender of September 1943 ( Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000 ): 87–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  3. 16.
    Jane Scrivener, Inside Rome with the Germans ( New York: Macmillan, 1945 ): 5.Google Scholar
  4. 18.
    For an account of Jews during the fascist period, see Alexander Stille: Benevolence and Betrayal, Five Italian Jewish Families Under Fascism (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991 ).Google Scholar
  5. 19.
    For recent views on this subject, see Joshua Zimmerman, ed., The Jews of Italy under Fascist and Nazi Rule, 1922–1945 ( New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005 ).Google Scholar
  6. 20.
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  7. 22.
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    See photographs in Antonio Spinosa, Salo, Una Storia per Immagini ( Milan: Mondadori, 1992 ).Google Scholar
  10. 34.
    Angelo Del Boca, “The Myths, Suppressions, Denials, and Defaults of Italian Colonialism,” in Patrizia Palumbo, ed., A Place in the Sun: Africa in Italian Colonial Culture from Post-Unification to the Present ( Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003 ), 21–25Google Scholar
  11. 36.
    Alexander De Grand, “Cracks in the Façade: The Failure of Fascist Totalitarianism in Italy 1935–9,” European History Quarterly 21: 4 (October 1991): 526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Robert O. Paxton, The Anatomy of Fascism ( New York: Knopf, 2004 ): 171.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Borden Painter 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Borden W. PainterJr.

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