Conclusion: Toward a More Inclusive and Grounded Feminist Approach to the State and Gendered Citizenship

  • Cecília MacDowell Santos


There is no doubt that the 1985 creation of the world’s first women’s police station in São Paulo was an important historical and political phenomenon with local, national and international repercussions. As of June 2003, there were 339 women’s police stations throughout Brazil (AGENDE and CLADEM 2003). Although 125 of these stations have been established in the state of São Paulo alone and only 10 percent of the municipalities have women’s police stations, every state throughout the country has at least one women’s police station (see Conselho Nacional dos Direitos da Mulher 2001). Inspired by this Brazilian phenomenon, eight countries in Latin America—Argentina, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Ecuador, Nicaragua, Peru, and Uruguay—have created women’s police stations (Corral 1993; Feijóo and Nari 1994; Chinchilla 1994; Nelson 1996; Jubb and Izumino 2002; Santos 1999a). In the late 1980s, European countries, such as Spain and Portugal, established a space for women complainants within regular police stations or some version of women’s police stations (Station 1989). Furthermore, since the early 1990s, hundreds of all-women’s police stations have been created in the main metropolises of Pakistan and India (San Francisco Chronicle 1993; War against Rape 2003; 2003).


Police Station Sexual Harassment Political Regime Battered Woman Criminal Court 
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© Cecίlia MacDowell Santos 2005

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  • Cecília MacDowell Santos

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