Apostles of Freedom: Pro-French American Democrats and Thomas Paine as Religious Crusaders

  • Matthew Rainbow Hale


Thomas Paine was known in his lifetime as an “Apostle of Liberty” and an “Apostle of Freedom.”1 Those phrases speak to the liberty-loving strain at the heart of Paine’s career. They also testify to a profound religious fervor. Paine focused on human rights and political emancipation, but the manner in which he did so bore witness to a prophetic, missionary quality.2


French Revolution American Revolution Political Writing American Historical Review Political Emancipation 
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