Advertisement

Class Struggle in the Ivory Towers

Revisiting the Birth of Black Studies in ’68
  • Stephen C. FergusonII
Part of the African American Philosophy and the African Diaspora book series (AAPAD)

Abstract

In the fall of 1968 Antioch College (Yellow Springs, Ohio) gave birth to the Afro-American Studies Institute. This Marxist-led program was one of the first Black Studies programs in the country.1 By the end of 1968, Yale University began the implementation of its Black Studies program, financed in large part by the Ford Foundation.2 Nearly 20 years later, around 1988, the first doctoral program in AAS was established. It was not Harvard, Yale, Princeton, or Columbia that would have that honor; it was established at Temple University with Molefi Asante at the helm as chair of the department. The curriculum at Temple was designed to reflect an explicit philosophical and methodological commitment to Afrocentricity. In contrast to conventional wisdom, Afrocentricity—with its focus on reclaiming precolonial African civilizations and culture devoid of class contradictions—was not the predominant philosophical approach as Black Studies entered the ivory tower in 1968. By what strange assortment of events did Afrocentricity come to occupy an intellectual space in Black Studies? Was it the result of a convergence of cosmic accidents (such as Cleopatra’s nose) that lead to its emergence as a school of thought in Black Studies?3 Was it an instance of divine providence by the Egyptian god Osiris, Allah, or Yahweh? Was it the result of the “cunning of Reason” or just the “march of history?” Was it simply an act of pure genius on the part of Molefi Asante and other Afrocentrists?

Keywords

Black Community Black Student Class Struggle Black Study African American Study 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    See Jewel Graham, “Remarks for Panel on Black Studies,” Annual Meeting of the American Orthopsychiatric Association, San Francisco, CA. March 23–26, 1970. http://antiochcollege.org/antiochiana/songs_from_the_stacks/remarks-panel-black-studies (Accessed May 15, 2014).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    See Armstead L. Robinson, Black Studies in the University: A Symposium (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1969).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    See E. H. Carr, What Is History? (New York: Vintage Books, 1961), 128.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    See Karl Marx, Class Struggle in France, 1848–1850 (New York: International Publishers, 1986), 10.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    John Arena, “Bringing in the Black Working Class: The Black Urban Regime Strategy,” Science & Society 75(2) (April 2011), 156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    See Karl Marx, Capital, Vol. 1 (New York: International Publishers, 1967), 20–21.Google Scholar
  7. see Nicos Ar. Poulantzas, Political Power and Social Classes (New York: Verso, 1987)Google Scholar
  8. Scott G. McNall, Rhonda F. Levine, and Rick Fantasia, Bringing Class Back in Contemporary and Historical Perspectives (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1991)Google Scholar
  9. Rhonda F. Levine, Enriching the Sociological Imagination: How Radical Sociology Changed the Discipline (Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers, 2005).Google Scholar
  10. For Marxist works on social movements, see Peter Alexander, “Rebellion of the Poor: South Africa’s Service Delivery Protests—A Preliminary Analysis,” Review of African Political Economy 37(123) (2010), 25–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Colin Barker and Gareth Dale, “Protest Waves in Western Europe: A Critique of ‘New Social Movement’ Theory,” Criticai Sociology 24(1–2) (1998), 1–2Google Scholar
  12. Colin Barker, “Some Reflections on Student Movements of the 1960s and Early 1970s,” Revista Critica de Ciências Socials 81 (June 2008), 43–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Satnam Virdee, “A Marxist Critique of Black Radical Theories of Trade-Union Racism,” Sociology 34(3) (2000), 545–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Alf G. Nilsen and Laurence Cox, “What Would a Marxist Theory of Social Movements Look Like?,” in Marxism and Social Movements, ed. Colin Barker, Laurence Cox, John Krinsky, and Alf G. Nilsen (Leiden: Brill, 2013), 63–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 7.
    I have borrowed this title from Barbara Foley. See Barbara Foley, “Looking Backward, 2002–1969: Campus Activism in the Era of Globalization,” in World Bank Literature, ed. Amitava Kumar (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2003), 26–39.Google Scholar
  16. 8.
    Charles Dickens, Hard Times (New York: The Modern Library, 2001), 4.Google Scholar
  17. 9.
    C. L. R James, “Key Problems in the Study of Negro History,” in C.L.R. James on the Negro Question, ed. Scott McLemee (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1996), 127.Google Scholar
  18. See also, C. L. R James, “The Philosophy of History and Necessity: A Few Words with Professor Hook, Part 1,” The New International 9(7) (July 1943), 210–213Google Scholar
  19. 10.
    see Martin Hollis, The Philosophy of Social Science: An Introduction (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994).Google Scholar
  20. see Alexander Rosenberg, Philosophy of Social Science (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1988).Google Scholar
  21. see John H. McClendon and Stephen C. Ferguson, Beyond the White Shadow: Philosophy, Sports, and the African American Experience (Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall Hunt, 2012).Google Scholar
  22. see Albert N. D. Brooks, “Democracy through Sports,” Negro History Bulletin 15(3) (December, 1951), 56ffGoogle Scholar
  23. Albert N. D. Brooks, “Negro History—A Foundation for Integration,” Negro History Bulletin 17 (January 1954), 94, 96.Google Scholar
  24. Edwin B. Henderson, “Foreword: The Negro in Sports,” The Negro History Bulletin 15(3) (December, 1951), 42–56.Google Scholar
  25. Charles Kenyatta Ross, Outside the Lines: African Americans and the Integration of the National Football League (New York: New York University Press, 1999)Google Scholar
  26. David L. Porter, African American Sports Greats: A Biographical Dictionary (Westport, CT Greenwood Press, 1995).Google Scholar
  27. 11.
    Earl E. Thorpe, The Dissertation of Man: A Critique of Philosophy of History (Baton Rouge, LA: Ortlieb Press, 1958), xxii.Google Scholar
  28. 12.
    See Berkley B. Eddins, Appraising Theories of History (Cincinnati, OH: Ehling, 1980).Google Scholar
  29. 13.
    Karl Marx, Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte (New York: International Publishers, 1987), 15.Google Scholar
  30. See also Berkley B. Eddins, “Historical Data and Policy-Decisions: The Key to Evaluating Philosophies of History,” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 26(3) (March 1966), 427–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 15.
    Howard Zinn, A People’s History of the United States (New York: Harper Perennial, 2010), 10.Google Scholar
  32. 16.
    See E. P. Thompson, “On History from Below,” in The Esential E. P. Thompson (New York: New Press, 2001), 481–489.Google Scholar
  33. See also, Sterling Stuckey, “From the Bottom Up: Herbert Aptheker’s American Negro Slave Revolts and A Documentary History of the Negro People in the United Statesi’ Nature, Society and Thought 10(1–2) January-April 1997), 39–67.Google Scholar
  34. 17.
    For an example of African American history as people’s history, see Richard Wright, 12 Million Black Voices (New York: Basic Books, a member of the Perseus Books Group, 2008).Google Scholar
  35. 18.
    R. G. Collingwood, An Autobiography and Other Writings, ed. David Boucher and Teresa Smith (New York: Oxford University Press, 2013), 97.Google Scholar
  36. 19.
    For recent histories of Black Studies, see N. M. Rooks, White Money/Black Power: The Surprising History of African American Studies and the Crisis of Race in Higher Education (Boston: Beacon, 2006)Google Scholar
  37. Fabio Rojas, From Black Power to Black Studies: How a Radical Social Movement Became an Academic Discipline (Baltimore, MD: The John Hopkins University Press, 2007).Google Scholar
  38. 20.
    For another example of narrative history in African American Studies, see John Dittmer, Local People: The Struggle for Civil Rights in Mississippi (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994).Google Scholar
  39. 22.
    Hayden White, Metahistory: The Historical Imagination in Nineteenth-Century Europe (Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press, 1973), 5.Google Scholar
  40. 23.
    see Alex Callinicos, Theories and Narratives: Reflections on the Philosophy of History (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1995), 44–94.Google Scholar
  41. 25.
    Peter Gay, Style in History: Gibbon, Ranke, Macaulay, Burckhardt (New York: Norton, 1974), 189.Google Scholar
  42. 26.
    Examples of recent scholarship treating the Black Studies movement, as part of the Black Power movement, see Peniel Joseph, “Dashikis and Democracy: Black Studies, Student Activism, and the Black Power Movement,” Journal of African American History 88(2) (Spring 2003), 182–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ibram H. Rogers, “The Black Campus Movement and the Institutionalization of Black Studies, 1965–1970,” Journal of African American Studies 16(1) (March 2012), 21–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. see Peniel Joseph, “Waiting till the Midnight Hour: Reconceptualizing the Heroic Period of the Civil Rights Movement, 1954–1965,” Souk: Critical Journal of Black Politics & Culture 2(2) (2000), 6–17.Google Scholar
  45. For critiques of Peniel Josephs work, see Jonathan Fenderson, “Towards the Gentrification of Black Power(?),” Race & Class 55(1) (2013), 1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Bruce A. Dixon, “Dr. Peniel Joseph: Peoples Historian or Establishment Courtier? Part One of Two,” Black Agenda Report: News Commentary and Analysis from the Black Left (June 16, 2010), available at: http://www.bkckagendareport.com/content/dr-peniel-joseph-peoples-historian-or-establish-ment-courtier-part-one-two (Accessed March 3, 2014)Google Scholar
  47. Bruce A. Dixon, “Dr. Peniel Joseph: Peoples Historian or Establishment Courtier? Part Two of Two: Peniel Joseph vs. Hubert Harrison on Democracy,” Black Agenda Report: News Commentary and Analysis from the Black Left (July 7, 2010), available at: http://www.blackagendareport.com/content/dr-peniel-joseph-peoples-historian-or-establishment-courtier-part-two-two-peniel-joseph-vs-h (Accessed March 3, 2014).Google Scholar
  48. 29.
    Robert S. Boynton, “The New Intellectuals,” Atlantic Monthly 275(3) (March 1995), 53.Google Scholar
  49. For a leftist critique of Black public intellectuals, see Adolph L. Reed, “‘What Are the Drums Saying, Booker?’ The Curious Role of the Black Public Intellectual,” in Class Notes: Posing As Politics and Other Thoughts on the American Scene (New York: The New Press, 2000), 77–90.Google Scholar
  50. 30.
    James Boggs, “Culture and Black Power,” in James Boggs, Pages from a Black Radical’s Notebook: A James Boggs Reader, ed. Stephen M. Ward. (Detroit, Michigan: Wayne State University Press, 2011), 184.Google Scholar
  51. 31.
    See George Orwell, 1984: A Novel (New York: Plume, 2003), 39.Google Scholar
  52. 33.
    see Chris Harman, The Fire Last Time: 1968 and After (London: Bookmarks, 1998).Google Scholar
  53. see Max Elbaum, Revolution in the Air: Sixties Radicali Turn to Lenin, Mao and Che (London: Verso, 2002).Google Scholar
  54. 34.
    see Sidney F. Walton, Jr., The Black Curriculum: Developing a Program in Afro-American Studies (East Palo Alto, CA: Black Liberation Publishers, 1969).Google Scholar
  55. 35.
    See Robert A. Maison, “The Black Power Rebellion at Howard University,” Negro Digest 27(2) (December 1967), 20–30Google Scholar
  56. Immanuel Maurice Wallerstein and Paul Starr, The University Crisis Reader. Vol. 1, The Liberal University Under Attack, and Vol. 2, Confrontation and Counterattack (New York: Random House, 1971).Google Scholar
  57. For a documentary on the Howard University student takeover, see Color Us Black (New York: National Educational Television, 1968).Google Scholar
  58. 36.
    Immanuel Maurice Wallerstein and Paul Starr, The University Crisis Reader, Vol. 2, Confrontation and Counterattack (New York: Random House, 1971), 486.Google Scholar
  59. See also, Valerie Jo Bradley, “Black Colleges Start New Year with Changes Student Demand,” Jet (October 30, 1969)Google Scholar
  60. Vincent Harding, “Black Students and the ‘Impossible’ Revolution,” Ebony (August 1969) (The Black Revolution: Special Issue), 141–146, 148Google Scholar
  61. James Turner, “Black Students and the Changing Perspective,” Ebony 24(10) (August 1969), 135–140.Google Scholar
  62. 37.
    see Andy Stafford, “Senegal: May 1968, Africa’s Revolt,” in Philipp Gassert and Martin Klimke, 1968: Memories and Legacies of a Global Revolt (Washington, DC: German Historical Institute, 2009), 129–135Google Scholar
  63. Robert Fatton, “Gramsci and the Legitimization of the State: The Case of the Senegalese Passive Revolution,” Canadian Journal of Political Science 19(4) (1986), 729–750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. William John Hanna, “Student Protest in Independent Black Africa,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 395 (May 1971), 171–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 38.
    See Amy Bass, Not the Triumph but the Struggle: The 1968 Olympics and the Making of the Black Athlete (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2002).Google Scholar
  66. 39.
    See John Carlos, The John Carlos Story: The Sports Moment that Changed the World (Chicago, IL: Haymarket Books, 2011), 81–82.Google Scholar
  67. 40.
    See Harry Edwards, The Revolt of the Black Athlete (New York: Free Press, 1969).Google Scholar
  68. Also consult, Douglas Hartmann, Race, Culture, and the Revolt of the Black Athlete: The 1968 Olympic Protests and Their Aftermath (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004).Google Scholar
  69. 41.
    See Samantha Christiansen and Zachary A. Scarlett, The Third World in the Global 1960s (New York: Berghahn Books, 2012)Google Scholar
  70. 42.
    John F. McDonald, Urban America: Growth, Crisis, and Rebirth (Armonk, NY: M. E Sharpe, 2008), 150.Google Scholar
  71. 43.
    Adolph Reed, “Black Particularity Reconsidered,” Telos 39 (1979), 71–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 44.
    see Peniel E. Joseph, “Dashikis and Democracy: Black Studies, Student Activism, and the Black Power Movement,” The Journal of African American History 88(2) (2003), 182–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Stefan M. Bradley, Harlem Vs. Columbia University: Black Student Power in the Late 1960s (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2009)Google Scholar
  74. Martha Biondi, The Black Revolution on Campus (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012)Google Scholar
  75. Ibram H. Rogers, The Black Campus Movement: Black Students and the Racial Reconstitution of Higher Education, 1965–1972 (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. see Rhett Jones, “Dreams, Nightmares, and Realities: Afro-American Studies at Brown University, 1969–1986,” in A Companion to African-American Studies, ed. Lewis R. Gordon and Jane Anna Gordon (Maiden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2006), 33–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 45.
    Frantz Fanon, Wretched of the Earth (New York: Grove Press, 2005), 206.Google Scholar
  78. 46.
    Angela Y. Davis, Angela Davis: An Autobiography (New York: International Publishers, 1988), 161.Google Scholar
  79. 47.
    Stokely Carmichael and Michael Thelwell, Ready for Revolution: The Life and Struggles of Stokely Carmichael (Kwame Ture) (New York: Scribner, 2003), 431–435Google Scholar
  80. Clayborne Carson, In Struggle: SNCC and the Black Awakening of the 1960s (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981), 147–148.Google Scholar
  81. Linda La Rue, “The Black Movement and Women’s Liberation,” The Black Scholar 1 (May 1970), 36–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 48.
    Judith Lowder Newton, From Panthers to Promise Keepers: Rethinking the Men’s Movement (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2005), 65.Google Scholar
  83. See also, Tracye A. Matthews, “‘No One Ever Asks What a Man’s Role in the Revolution Is’: Gender Politics and Leadership in the Black Panther Party, 1966–1971,” in The Black Panther Party (Reconsidered), ed. Charles E. Jones (Baltimore, MD: Black Classic Press, 1998), 267–304.Google Scholar
  84. Kimberly Springer, Living for the Revolution Black Feminist Organizations, 1968–1980 (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 49.
    See Kwame Nkrumah, Kwame Nkrumah: The Conakry Years, His Life and Letters. Compiled by June Milne. (London: Panaf, 1990), 398.Google Scholar
  86. 50.
    see Michael R Winston, “Through the Back Door: Academic Racism and the Negro Scholar in Historical Perspective,” Daedalus 100(3) (Summer 1971), 678–719.Google Scholar
  87. 51.
    see Janet Maslin, Review of School Daze, New York Times (February 12, 1988).Google Scholar
  88. Amiri Baraka, “Spike Lee at the Movies,” in Black American Cinema, ed. Manthia Diawara (New York: Routledge, 1993), 145–153.Google Scholar
  89. 52.
    Noliwe Rooks, White Money/Black Power (Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 2006), 4.Google Scholar
  90. 54.
    Peniel Joseph, “Dashikis and Democracy: Black Studies, Student Activism, and the Black Power Movement,” Journal of African American History 88(2) (Spring 2003), 197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 55.
    see David N. Smith, Who Rules the Universities? An Essay in Class Analysis (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1974).Google Scholar
  92. see William J. Broad, “Billionaires with Big Ideas Are Privatizing American Science,” New York Times (March 15, 2014).Google Scholar
  93. 56.
    See V. I. Lenin, State and Revolution in Collected Works, Vol. 25 (Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1961), 381–492.Google Scholar
  94. 58.
    See Jack Bass and Jack Nelson, The Orangeburg Massacre (Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 2002)Google Scholar
  95. Cleveland Sellers, The River of No Return: The Autobiography of a Black Militant and the Life and Death of SNCC (New York: Morrow, 1973).Google Scholar
  96. 60.
    See John Locke, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Book 2, Chapter 1, Section 2 (Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company, 1996), 33.Google Scholar
  97. 61.
    Nathan Hare, “War on Black Colleges,” The Black Schohr 9 (May–June 1978), 18.Google Scholar
  98. 62.
    Kwame Nkrumah, Consciencism: Philosophy and Ideology for De-Colonization (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1970), 78.Google Scholar
  99. 63.
    Quoted in Jelani Manu-Gowan Favors, Shaking Up the World: North Carolina Agricultural & Technical State University and the Black Student Movement, 1960–1969. Thesis (M.A.) (Ohio State University, 1997), 97.Google Scholar
  100. 66.
    James A. Foley and Robert K. Foley, The College Scene: Students Tell It Like It Is (New York: Cowles Book Company, 1969), 24.Google Scholar
  101. 67.
    See Stefan M. Bradley, Harlem vs. Columbia University: Black Student Power in the Late 1960s (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2009).Google Scholar
  102. 68.
    Quoted in Roderick A. Ferguson, The Reorder of Things: The University and Its Pedagogies of Minority Difference (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2012), 51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 69.
    Angela Y. Davis, Angela Davis: An Autobiography (New York: International Publishers, 1988), 196.Google Scholar
  104. 70.
    See George Mariscal, Brown-Eyed Children of the Sun: Lessons from the Chicano Movement: 1965–1975 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2005)Google Scholar
  105. 71.
    See Chuck Hopkins, “Malcolm X Liberation University: Interim Report,” Negro Digest 19(5) (March 1970), 39–42.Google Scholar
  106. 72.
    See Fanon Che Wilkins excellent dissertation, “‘In the Belly of the Beast’: Black Power, Anti-Imperialism, and the African Liberation Solidarity Movement, 1968–1975” (PhD diss., New York University, 2001).Google Scholar
  107. G. A. McWorter, “Struggle Ideology and the Black University,” Negro Digest 18(5) (March 1969), 15–21Google Scholar
  108. See also, Vincent Harding, “Toward The Black University,” Ebony (August 1970), 156–159Google Scholar
  109. James T. Wooten, “Malcolm X University to Open,” New York Times (October 28, 1969)Google Scholar
  110. Willie E. Davis, “Malcolm X Liberation University,” SOBU Newsletter (February 6, 1971), 10.Google Scholar
  111. See Devin Fergus, Liberalism, Black Power, and the Making of American Politics, 1965–1980 (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2009)Google Scholar
  112. See also Brent H. Belvin, “Malcolm X Liberation University: An Experiment in Independent Black Education” (PhD diss., North Carolina State University, 2004).Google Scholar
  113. See Rob Christensen, “The Winding Journey of Howard Fuller,” Durham News & Observer (November 19, 2013.) http://www.newsobserver.com/2013/11/19/3387943/christensen-the-winding-journey.html (Accessed April 14, 2014).Google Scholar
  114. 73.
    See, for example, The Center Staff, “Center for Black Education: Position Paper,” Negro Digest (March 1970), 44–47.Google Scholar
  115. see Kwasi Konadu, A View From the East: Black Cultural Nationalism and Education in New York City (New York: Syracuse University Press, 2009).Google Scholar
  116. 74.
    See Sundiata Cha-Jua and Clarence Lang, “Providence, Patriarchy, Pathology: Louis Farrakhan’s Rise and Decline,” New Politics 6(2) (Winter 1997), 47–71.Google Scholar
  117. 75.
    Lerone Bennett, “The Challenge of Blackness,” Black World 20(4) (February 1971), 21.Google Scholar
  118. 76.
    Ernest Kaiser, In Defense of the People’s Black & White History and Culture (New York: Freedomways, 1970), 2.Google Scholar
  119. 79.
    Kenneth B. Clark, “Letter of Resignation from Board of Directors of Antioch College,” in Black Studies: Myths and Realities, ed., Martin Kilson (New York: A. Philip Randolph Educational Fund, 1969), 34.Google Scholar
  120. 80.
    Marxist theorist and activist Robert Rhodes led the Black Studies program at Antioch. The Office of Civil Rights of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare used the double-edge sword of the 1964 civil rights law to hinder the development of the Afro-American Studies Institute. Antioch College was threatened with possible loss of federal assistance for violation of Title VI of the 1964 Civil Rights Act for discriminating against white students at Antioch. Rhodes later taught in African American Studies at Ohio University. See his important article, “Internationalism and Social Consciousness in the Black Community,” Freedomways 12 (1972), 230–236.Google Scholar
  121. 81.
    Bayard Rustin, “Black Studies and Inequality,” in Bayard Rustin: American Dreamer, ed. Jerald E. Podair (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2009), 147.Google Scholar
  122. 82.
    Martin Kilson, “Reflections on Structure and Content in Black Studies,” The Black Scholar 3(3) (March 1973), 300.Google Scholar
  123. 84.
    See Farah Jasmine Griffin, Inclusive Scholarship: Developing Black Studies in the United States: A 25th Anniversary Retrospective of Ford Foundation Grant Making, 1982–2007 (New York: Ford Foundation, 2007), particularly the 1982 report by Nathan I. Huggins, “Afro-American Studies: A Report to the Ford Foundation.”Google Scholar
  124. 85.
    See Lloyd Gardner, “Harry Hopkins with Hand Grenades? McGeorge Bundy in the Kennedy and Johnson Years,” in Behind the Throne: Servants of Power to Imperial Presidents, 1898–1968, ed. Thomas J. McCormick and Walter LaFeber (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1993), 204–229.Google Scholar
  125. 86.
    Robert Allen, “Politics of the Attack on Black Studies,” The Black Scholar 6 (September 1974), 2–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. see Africa Research Group. The Extended Family—African Studies in America—A Tribal Analysis of U.S. Africanists: Who They Are; Why to Fight Them (Cambridge, MA: The Group, 1970).Google Scholar
  127. See also Paul Tiyambe Zeleza, “Building Intellectual Bridges: from African studies and African American studies to Africana studies in the United States,” Afrika Focus 24(2) (2011), 9–31.Google Scholar
  128. 87.
    See A. Gilbert Belles, “The College Faculty, the Negro Scholar and the Julius Rosenwald Fund,” The Journal of Negro History, 54(4) (October 1969), 383–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. see Henry Allen Bullock, A History of Negro Education in the South: From 1619 to the Present (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1968)Google Scholar
  130. James D. Anderson, The Education of Blacks in the South, 1860–1935 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. William H. Watkins, The White Architects of Black Education: Ideology and Power in America, 1865–1954 (New York: Teachers College Press, 2001).Google Scholar
  132. 88.
    See also N. M. Rooks, White Money/Black Power: The Surprising History of African American Studies and the Crisis of Race in Higher Education (Boston: Beacon, 2006)Google Scholar
  133. Fabio Rojas, From Black Power to Black Studies: How a Radical Social Movement Became an Academic Discipline (Baltimore, MD: The John Hopkins University Press, 2007).Google Scholar
  134. 90.
    Fabio Rojas, From Black Power to Black Studies: How a Radical Social Movement Became an Academic Discipline (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007), 138–139.Google Scholar
  135. See Derrick E. White, The Challenge of Blackness The Institute of the Black World and Political Activism in the 1970s (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 91.
    John T. Bethell, Harvard Observed: An Illustrated History of the University in the Twentieth Century (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998), 263–264.Google Scholar
  137. see Eileen Southern, “A Pioneer: Black and Female,” in Werner Sollors, Caldwell Titcomb, and Thomas A. Underwood, Blacks at Harvard: A Documentary History of African-American Experience at Harvard and Radcliffe (New York: New York University Press, 1993), 499–503.Google Scholar
  138. 93.
    Ewart Guinier, “Black Studies: Training for Leadership,” Freedomways 15 (Summer 1975), 196–205Google Scholar
  139. Ewart Guinier, “Impact of Unionization on Blacks,” Proceedings of the Academy of Political Science 30(2) (December 1970), 173–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 94.
    Richard M. Benjamin, “The Revival of African-American Studies at Harvard,” The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education 9 (Autumn 1995), 64.Google Scholar
  141. 97.
    Douglas E. Schoen, “Kilson and Guinier Debate the Role of Black Studies,” The Harvard Crimson (December 10, 1973). http://www.thecrimson.com/article/1973/12/10/kilson-and-guinier-debate-the-role/ (Accessed April 19, 2014).Google Scholar
  142. 98.
    See Robert L. Allen, Black Awakeningin Capitalist America, an Analytic History (Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 1990).Google Scholar
  143. 99.
    see Roy Wilkins, “Black Power is Black Death,” New York Times (July 7, 1966), 35Google Scholar
  144. Kwame Nkrumah, Revolutionary Path (New York: International Publishers, 1973), 421–428.Google Scholar
  145. 100.
    For an example of the communitarian foundation to Black Power, see Nathan Hare, “Can Blacks Ever Unite? Black Leaders and Street Brothers Alike Are Optimistic,” Ebony (September 1976), 96–98, 100, 102.Google Scholar
  146. 101.
    See, Joshua D. Farrington, “‘Build, Baby, Build,’ Conservative Black Nationalists, Free Enterprise, and the Nixon Administration,” in The Right Side of the Sixties: Reexamining Conservatism’s Decade of Transformation, ed. Laura Jane Gifford and Daniel K. Williams (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012), 61–80.Google Scholar
  147. 102.
    For scholarship on the history of CORE, see James Farmer, Lay Bare the Heart: An Autobiography of the Civil Rights Movement (New York: Arbor House, 1985)Google Scholar
  148. August Meier and Elliott M. Rudwick, CORE: A Study in the Civil Rights Movement, 1942–1968 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1973)Google Scholar
  149. Nishani Frazier, Harambee Nation: Cleveland CORE, Community Organization, andthe Rise of Black Power. Thesis (PhD)—Columbia University, 2008.Google Scholar
  150. 103.
    See Robert Allen, Black Awakening in Capitalist America: An Analytic History (Trenton, NJ: Africa World, 1992), 182–192.Google Scholar
  151. 104.
    Harold Cruse, “Behind the Black Power Slogan,” in Rebellion or Revolution! (New York: William Morrow and Company, 1968), 201.Google Scholar
  152. 106.
    See Gerald Horne, From the Barrel of a Gun: The United States and the War against Zimbabwe, 1965–1980 (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2001), 352, n28.Google Scholar
  153. 107.
    See Joan Turner Beifuss, At the River I Stand: Memphis, the 1968 Strike, and Martin Luther King (Brooklyn, NY: Carlson Publishers, 1989)Google Scholar
  154. Michael K. Honey, Going Down Jericho Road: The Memphis Strike, Martin Luther King’s Last Campaign (New York: W.W. Norton, 2007).Google Scholar
  155. 109.
    Michael Boyette and Randi Boyette, “Let Lt Burn!”: The Philadelphia Tragedy (Chicago: Contemporary Books, 1989).Google Scholar
  156. Osder, Jason, Christopher Mangum, and Michael Moses Ward, Let the Fire Burn (New York: Zeitgeist Films, 2014).Google Scholar
  157. 110.
    For a general discussion of Black mayors, see David R Colburn and Jeffrey S. Adler, African-American Mayors: Race, Politics, and the American City (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2001).Google Scholar
  158. This tendency was the logical outgrowth of racial uplift ideology. See, for example, J. Phillip Thompson, Double Trouble Black Mayors, Black Communities, and the Call for a Deep Democracy (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006)Google Scholar
  159. Clarence Nathan Stone, Regime Politics: Governing Athlnta, 1964–1988 (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1989).Google Scholar
  160. see Ann Cohen and James Dooley, “Privatizing Philly vs. AFSCME DC 33,” Labor Research Review 7 (15) (1990), 15–23.Google Scholar
  161. 111.
    Amiri Baraka, “A Reply to Saunders Reddings’ ‘The Black Revolution in American Studies,’” in Daggers and Javelins (New York: Quill, 1984), 282.Google Scholar
  162. 113.
    Martha Biondi, The Black Revolution on Campus (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012), 135.Google Scholar
  163. 115.
    Hugh E. Gibson, “3 Voorhees Rebels Are Sought,” The News and Courier (Charleston, SC) (May 1, 1969), 1–2AGoogle Scholar
  164. 119.
    Robert Allen, “Politics of the Attack on Black Studies,” The Black Scholar 6 (September 1974), 2–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 121.
    For an overview of SOBU/YOBU, see Jelani Favors, “North Carolina A & T Black Power Activists and the Student Organization for Black Unity,” in Rebellion in Black and White: Southern Student Activism in the 1960s, ed. Robert Cohen and David J. Snyder (Baltimore, MD: The John Hopkins University Press, 2013), 255–279.Google Scholar
  166. 123.
    For an excellent introduction to the white settler regimes in Southern Africa and the African liberation movement, see Africa Research Group, Race to Power: The Struggle for Southern Africa (Garden City, NY: Anchor Press, 1974).Google Scholar
  167. 124.
    See Milton Coleman, “Student Organization for Black Unity Explains Program,” The A & T Register (NCAT, Greensboro) (October 23, 1970), 1, 3.Google Scholar
  168. 127.
    See Rod Bush, We Are Not What We Seem: Black Nationalism and Class Struggle in the American Century (New York: New York University Press, 1999), 209–211.Google Scholar
  169. See also Max Elbaum, Revolution in the Air: Sixties Radicali Turn to Lenin, Mao and Che (New York: Verso, 2002).Google Scholar
  170. 128.
    See V. I. Lenin, What Is To Be Done? Burning (Juestions of Our Movement in Collected Works, Vol. 5 (Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1961), 440–492.Google Scholar
  171. 129.
    See Jefferson R. Cowie, Stayin Alive: The 1970s and the Last Days of the Working Class (New York: New Press, 2012).Google Scholar
  172. 130.
    See Martha Biondi, The Black Revolution on Campus (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012), 111–112.Google Scholar
  173. 131.
    see Kim Moody, An Injury to All: The Decline of American Unionism (New York: Verso, 1988).Google Scholar
  174. 132.
    Philip F. Rubio, There’s Always Work at the Post Office African American Postal Workers and the Fight for Jobs, Justice, and Equality (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010), particularly Chapter 10, “The Great Postal Strike of 1970.”Google Scholar
  175. 133.
    Aaron Brenner, Rank-and-File Rebellion, 1966–1975 (PhD diss., Columbia University, 1996).Google Scholar
  176. See the excellent anthology, Aaron Brenner, Robert Brenner, and Calvin Winslow. Rebel Rank and File: Labor Militancy and Revolt from Below in the Long 1970s (London: Verso, 2010).Google Scholar
  177. 134.
    See Karen Brodkin, Caring by the Hour: Women, Work, and Organizing at Duke Medical Center (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988).Google Scholar
  178. For a good analysis of the unionization drive of 1978 at Duke, see Tony Dunbar, “The Old South Triumphs at Duke,” Southern Changes 1(9) (1979), 5–8. See also, Christina Greene, Our Separate Ways: Women and the Black Freedom Movement in Durham, North Carolina (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 2005).Google Scholar
  179. 135.
    See James P. Comer, “Nixon Policies and the Black Future in America,” Black World 22(5) (March 1973), 36–39, 66–69.Google Scholar
  180. 136.
    See Ward Churchill and Jim Vander Wall, Agents of Repression: The FBI’s Secret Wars against the Black Panther Party and the American Indian Movement (Boston, MA: South End Press, 1988)Google Scholar
  181. Ward Churchill and Jim Vander Wall, The COINTELPRO Papers: Documents from the FBI’s Secret Wars against Domestic Dissent (Boston, MA: South End Press, 1990)Google Scholar
  182. Kenneth O’Reilly, Racial Matters: The FBI’s Secret File on Black America, 1960–1972 (New York: Free Press, 1989).Google Scholar
  183. 138.
    See Clarence Lang, “Freedom Train Derailed: The National Negro Labor Council and the Nadir of Black Radicalism,” in Anticommunism and the African American Freedom Movement: “Another Side of the Story”, ed. Robbie Lieberman and Clarence Lang (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009), 161–188.Google Scholar
  184. 139.
    For a passionate account of the Greensboro Massacre, see Signe Waller, Love and Revolution: A Political Memoir—People’s History of the Greensboro Massacre, Its Setting and Aftermath (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2002).Google Scholar
  185. Other notable accounts are: Amilcar Cabral/Paul Robeson Collective, The Greensboro Massacre: Critical lessons for the 1980’s (Raleigh, NC: Amilcar Cabral/Paul Robeson Collective, 1980)Google Scholar
  186. Revolutionary Communist Party, USA, Never Forgive or Forget the Greensboro Massacre: Nazis, Klan & Kops Go Free, That’s What the Rich Call Democracy (Greensboro, NC: Revolutionary Communist Party, 1980)Google Scholar
  187. Greensboro Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Final Report: Examination of the Context, Causes, Sequence and Consequence of the Events of November 3, 1979. Presented to the Residents of Greensboro, the City, the Greensboro Truth and Community Reconciliation Project and Other Public Bodies on May 25, 2006 (Greensboro, NC: Greensboro Truth and Reconciliation Commission, 2006)Google Scholar
  188. Elizabeth Wheaton, Codename GREENKII: The 1979 Greensboro Killings (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1987).Google Scholar
  189. 140.
    Gerald Home, “Blowback: Playing the Nationalist Card Backfires,” in After Political Correctness: The Humanities and Society in the 1990s, ed. Christopher Newfield and Ronald Strickland (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1995), 84.Google Scholar
  190. See also, Erik S. McDuffie, “Black and Red: Black Liberation, The Cold War, and the Home Thesis,” The Journal of African American History 96(2) (2011), 236–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 141.
    See Robert Allen, Black Awakening in Capitalist America: An Analytic History (Trenton, NJ: Africa World, 1992).Google Scholar
  192. See Eldridge Cleaver, “On Lumpen Ideology,” The Black Scholar 3 (November–December 1972), 2–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Kathleen Cleaver, “On the Vanguard Role of the Black Urban Lumpen Proletariat,” Pamphlet (London: Grass/Roots Publications, 1975).Google Scholar
  194. see Clarence J. Munford, “The Fallacy of Lumpen Ideology,” The Black Scholar 4 (July–August 1973), 47–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. See also, Henry Winston, “Crisis of the Black Panther Party,” in Strategy for a Black Agenda (New York: International Publishers, 1973), 207–233Google Scholar
  196. Chris Booker, “Lumpenization: A Critical Error of the Black Panther Party,” in The Black Panther Party (Reconsidered), ed. Charles Earl Jones (Baltimore, MD: Black Classic Press, 1998), 337–362.Google Scholar
  197. 142.
    Floyd W. Hayes, III and Francis A. Kiene, III, “All Power to the People’: The Political Thought of Huey P. Newton and The Black Panther Party,” in The Black Panther Party (Reconsidered), ed. Charles E. Jones (Baltimore, MD: Black Classic Press, 1998), 169.Google Scholar
  198. See also Floyd W. Hayes, III and Judson L. Jefferies, “Us Does Not Stand for United Slaves!,” in Black Power in the Belly of the Beast, ed. Judson L. Jefferies (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois, 2006), 67–92.Google Scholar
  199. 143.
    Huey P. Newton, War against the Panthers: A Study of Repression in America (New York: Harlem River Press, 1996), 78–81.Google Scholar
  200. 144.
    For Karenga’s counterargument against charges that US collaborated with the FBI, see Maulana Karenga, “US, Kawaida and the Black Liberation Movement in the 1960s: Culture, Knowledge and Struggle,” in Engines of the Black Power Movement: Essays on the Influence of Civil Rights Actions, Arts, and Islam, ed. James L. Conyers (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2007), 95–133.Google Scholar
  201. 145.
    John H. McClendon III, “From Cultural Nationalism to Cultural Criticism: Philosophical Idealism, Paradigmatic Illusions and the Politics of Identity,” in Decolonizing the Academy: African Diaspora Studies, ed. Carole Boyce Davies (Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 2003), 3–26.Google Scholar
  202. 146.
    See Harold Cruse, Crisis of the Negro Intellectual (New York: Morrow, 1967).Google Scholar
  203. see Robert Chrisman, “The Crisis of Harold Cruse,” The Black Scholar 1(1) (1969), 77–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Sterling Stuckey and Joshua Leslie, “Reflections on Reflections About The Black Intellectual, 1930–1945,” First World: An International Journal of Black Thought 2(2) (1979), 26–29Google Scholar
  205. Ernest Kaiser, Review of The Crisis of the Negro Intellectual. Freedomways (1969), 24–41Google Scholar
  206. Julian Mayfield, “Crisis or Crusade? Negro Digest (June 1968), 10–24Google Scholar
  207. Ernest Allen, “The Cultural Methodology of Harold Cruse,” The Journal of Ethnic Studies 5(2) (1977), 26–49Google Scholar
  208. Tony Thomas, Black liberation and Socialism (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1970), 157–176.Google Scholar
  209. 147.
    See, for example, Cornel West, “The New Cultural Politics of Difference,” in Out There: Marginalization and Contemporary Cultures, ed. Russell Ferguson, Martha Gever, Trinh T. Minh-ha, and Cornel West (New York: New Museum of Contemporary Art, 1990), 19–36.Google Scholar
  210. 148.
    Adolph Reed, W. E. B. Du Bois and American Political Thought (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 130.Google Scholar
  211. 149.
    E. P. Thompson, “Commitment and Politics,” Universities and Left Review 6 (Spring 1959), 51.Google Scholar
  212. 150.
    Earl Ofari, “Black Labor: Powerful Force for Liberation,” Black World (October 1973)Google Scholar
  213. Haki R. Madhubuti (Don L. Lee), “Enemy from the White Left, White Right and In-Between” (October 1974)Google Scholar
  214. see William L. Van Deburg, Modern Black Nationalism: From Marcus Garvey to Louis Farrakhan (New York: New York University Press, 1997).Google Scholar
  215. 151.
    Hutchings, “Report on the ALSC National Conference,” The Black Scholar 5 (July–August 1974), 48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 153.
    See Pan-African Congress, Resolutions and Selected Speeches from the Sixth Pan African Congress (Dar es Salaam: Tanzania Publishing House, 1976)Google Scholar
  217. Walter Rodney, Towards the Sixth Pan-African Congress: Aspects of the Lnternational Class Struggle in Africa (Atlanta: Institute of the Black World, 1975)Google Scholar
  218. Courtland Cox, “Sixth Pan African Congress,” The Black Scholar 5(7) (1974), 32–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Modibo M. Kadalie, Internationalism, Pan-Africanism and the Struggle of Social Classes: Raw Writings from the Notebook of an Early Nineteen Seventies African-American Radical Activist (Savannah, GA: One Quest Press, 2000), 246–358.Google Scholar
  220. see Fanon Che Wilkins, “A Line of Steel’: The Organization of the Sixth Pan-African Congress and the Struggle for International Black Power, 1969–1974,” in The Hidden 1970s Histories of Radicalism, ed. Dan Berger (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2010), 97–114.Google Scholar
  221. 155.
    See Haki R. Madhubuti, “The Latest Purge: The Attack on Black Nationalism and Pan-Afrikanism by the New Left, the Sons and Daughters of the Old Left,” The Black Scholar 6 (September 1974), 43–56.Google Scholar
  222. See, for example, Walter White, “The Negro and the Communists,” Harper’s (December 1931).Google Scholar
  223. 156.
    Mark Smith, “A Response to Haki Madhubuti,” The Black Scholar G (January–February 1975), 44–53.Google Scholar
  224. 157.
    See the articles and letters by S. E. Anderson, Alonzo 4X (Cannady), Ronald Walters, and Chancellor Williams, The Black Scholar (October 1974)Google Scholar
  225. Maulana Karenga and Kalamu Ya Salaam, The Black Scholar (January–February 1975)Google Scholar
  226. Preston Wilcox and Jomo Simba, The Black Scholar (March 1975)Google Scholar
  227. Gwendolyn M. Patton and Mark S. Johnson, The Black Scholar (April 1975).Google Scholar
  228. See also, Kalamu Ya Salaam, “Tell No Lies, Claim No Easy Victories,” Black World (October 1974), 18–34.Google Scholar
  229. 158.
    See Roy Bhaskar, Scientific Realism and Human Emancipation (New York: Verso, 2009), 6.Google Scholar
  230. See Maulana Ron Karenga, “Kawaida and Its Critics: A Sociohistorical Analysis,” Journal of Black Studies 8 (December 1977), 125–148.Google Scholar
  231. Maulana Karenga, “Which Road: Nationalism, Pan-Africanism, Socialism?,” The Black Scholar 6(2) (1974), 21–30Google Scholar
  232. Maulana Karenga, “Ideology and Struggle: Some Preliminary Notes,” The Black Scholar 6(5) (1975), 23–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. All of these articles were republished in Maulana Karenga, Essays on Struggle: Position and Analysis (San Diego: Kawaida Publications, 1978).Google Scholar
  234. 159.
    See Alvin W. Gouldner, The Future of Intellectuals and the Rise of the New Class: A Frame of Reference, Theses, Conjectures, Arguments, and an Historical Perspective on the Role of Intellectuals and Intelligentsia in the International Class Contest of the Modern Era (New York: Seabury Press, 1979), 28.Google Scholar
  235. 160.
    see Max Elbaum, Revolution in the Air: Sixties Radicals Turn to Lenin, Mao and Che (New York: Verso, 2002)Google Scholar
  236. 161.
    John H. McClendon, CIR James’s Notes on Dialectics: Left Hegelianism Or Marxism-leninism? (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2004).Google Scholar
  237. 162.
    Quoted in St. Clair Drake, “What Happened to Black Studies?,” in The African American Studies Reader, ed. Nathaniel Norment (Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2001), 269.Google Scholar
  238. 163.
    Rhett Jones, “Dreams, Nightmares, and Realities: Afro-American Studies at Brown University, 1969–1986,” in A Companion to African-American Studies, ed. Lewis R. Gordon and Jane Anna Gordon (Maiden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2006), 41.Google Scholar
  239. See also, Abdul Alkalimat, “Black Power in U. S. Education: Ideology, Academic Activism and the Politics of Black Liberation,” Africa World Review [London, England] 2 (May–October 1992), 13–15.Google Scholar
  240. 164.
    Abdul Alkalimat, “Toward a Paradigm of Unity in Black Studies,” in African American Studies Reader, ed. Nathaniel Norment (Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2001), 391–407.Google Scholar
  241. See Abdul A. Alkalimat (Gerald A. McWorter), Introduction to Afro-American Studies: A Peoples College Primer (Chicago: Twenty-first Century Books and Publications, 1986)Google Scholar
  242. Abdul A. Alkalimat, Scientific Approach to Black liberation: Which Road against Racism and Imperialism for the Black liberation Movement (Nashville, TN: Peoples College, 1974).Google Scholar
  243. 165.
    See Abdul Alkalimat, “Black Marxism in the White Academy: The Contours and Contradictions of an Emerging School of Black Thought,” in Paradigms in Black Studies: Intellectual History, Cultural Meaning and Political Ideology, ed. Abdul Alkalimat (Chicago: Twenty-first Century Books and Publications, 1990), 205–222.Google Scholar
  244. see John H. McClendon, “Marxism in Ebony Contra Black Marxism: Categorical Implications,” Proud Flesh: New Afrikan Journal of Culture, Politics & Consciousness 6 (2007), 1–44.Google Scholar
  245. See also Greg Meyerson, “Rethinking Black Marxism: Reflections on Cedric Robinson and Others,” Cultural logic: An Electronic Journal of Marxist Theory & Practice 3(1) (Fall 1999), http://clogic.eserver.org/3-l&2/meyerson.htmlGoogle Scholar
  246. 168.
    See, for instance, Nah Dove, “An African-Centered Critique of Marx’s Logic,” The Western Journal of Black Studies 19(4) (1995), 260–271.Google Scholar
  247. 170.
    Howard Goodman, “Panel Report Sheds Light on Asante Controversy Temple Faculty Board Sought A Tribunal,” The Inquirer (November 14, 1996). http://articles.philly.com/1996-11-14/news/25649100_l_faculty-senate-committee-members-report.Google Scholar
  248. 171.
    See Myung Oak Kim, “Temple Black Studies Rift Widens,” Philly.com (June 21, 1997). http://articles.philly.com/1997-06-21/news/25528453_l_asantegrievance-faculty (Last accessed November 10, 2014).Google Scholar
  249. 172.
    John Moritz and Erin Edinger-Turoff, “Ousted Professor Re-ignites Protests within Department,” The Temple News (February 18, 2014). http://templenews.com/news/ousted-professor-re-ignites-protests-within-department/(Last accessed November 10, 2014).Google Scholar
  250. 174.
    On Cleaver’s evolution, see Jacob Zumoff, “Eldridge Cleaver,” in African American Lives, ed. Henry Louis Gates and Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004), 173–175.Google Scholar
  251. 175.
    For a great analysis of Fullers organization The Black Alliance for Educational Options, see Erica Lasdon and Eric Evenskaas, Community Voiceor Captive of the Right? A Closer Look at the Black Alliance for Educational Options (Washington, DC: People for the American Way, 2003), 1–16.Google Scholar
  252. See also Sarah Barber, Never Stop Working: Examining the Life and Activism of Howard Fuller. Master’s Thesis. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2012Google Scholar
  253. Jeanette Mitchell, Fighting the Lnequalities in Education for African Americans: A Comparative Analysis of Two Leaders’ Stories (PhD diss., Cardinal Stritch University, 2001).Google Scholar
  254. See also Howard Fuller and Lisa Frazier Page, No Struggle, No Progress: A Warrior’s Life from Black Power to Education Reform (Milwaukee, WI: Marquette University Press, 2014).Google Scholar
  255. see also, Adolph Reed, “The Real Problem with Selma: It Doesn’t Help Us Understand the Civil Rights Movement, the Regime it Challenged, or Even the Significance of the Voting Rights Act,” Nonsite.org (January 26, 2015). http://nonsite.org/editorial/the-real-problem-with-selma (Last accessed February 25, 2015).Google Scholar
  256. 177.
    See, Anthony Monteiro, “Review Essay—Race, Class and Civilization: On Clarence J. Munford’s Race and Reparations” The Black Scholar 29(1) (1999), 46–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. 178.
    See Charles Mills, “Red Shift: Politically Embodied/Embodied Politics,” in The Philosophical I: Personal Reflections on Life in Philosophy, ed. George Yancy (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2002), 155–175.Google Scholar
  258. See also, Charles W. Mills, From Class to Race: Essays in White Marxism and Black Radicalism (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003).Google Scholar
  259. see John H. McClendon III, “Black and White contra Left and Right? The Dialectics of Ideological Critique in African American Studies,” APA Newsletter on Philosophy and the Black Experience 2(1) (Fall 2002), 47–56.Google Scholar
  260. 179.
    See Ellen Meiksins Wood, The Retreat from Class: A New “True” Socialism (New York: Verso, 1986).Google Scholar
  261. 180.
    See especially John Foster Bellamy, “Introduction to a Symposium on the Ethical Dimensions of Marxist Thought,” Monthly Review 45(2) (June 1993), 8–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. See also, Robert Gooding-Williams, “Evading Narrative Myth, Evading Prophetic Pragmatism: Cornel West’s The American Evasion of Philosophy,” The Massachusetts Review (Winter 1991–1992), 519–523Google Scholar
  263. John P. Pittman, “‘Radical Historicism,’ Antiphilosophy, and Marxism,” in Cornel West: A Critical Reader, ed. George Yancy (Maiden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 2001), 224–244.Google Scholar
  264. For a penetrating left critique read Eric Lott, “Cornel West in the Hour of Chaos: Culture and Politics in Race Matters” Social Text 40 (Autumn 1994), 39–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. 181.
    Cornel West, Prophetic Fragments (Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 1988), 48.Google Scholar
  266. 182.
    Alf G. Nilsen and Laurence Cox, “What Would a Marxist Theory of Social Movements Look Like?” in Marxism and Social Movements, ed. Colin Barker, Laurence Cox, John Krinsky, and Alf G. Nilsen (Leiden: Brill, 2013), 71.Google Scholar
  267. 183.
    Antonio Gramsci, Selections from Prison Notebooks. Translated by (Juintin Hoare and Geoffrey Nowell-Smith (New York: International Publishers, 1971), 263.Google Scholar
  268. 184.
    See Gerald Home, Race Woman: The Lives of Shirley Graham Du Bois (New York: New York University Press, 2000), 219–220.Google Scholar
  269. 187.
    See Donald F. Tibbs, From Black Power to Prison Power: The Making of Jones v. North Carolina Prisoners’ Labor Union (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. 189.
    see Don L. Lee, “African Liberation Day,” Ebony 28(9) (July 1973), 41–44, 46.Google Scholar
  271. see Brenda Gayle Plummer, Ln Search of Power: African Americans in the Era of Decolonization, 1956–1974 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013).Google Scholar
  272. See Phil Hutchings, “Report on the ALSC National Conference,” The Black Scholar 5(10) (July–August 1974), 48–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. See also, Chris Harris, “Canadian Black Power, Organic Intellectuals and the War of Position in Toronto, 1967–1975,” in The Sixties in Canada: A Turbulent and Creative Decade, ed. M. Athena Palaeologu (Montréal: Black Rose Books, 2009), 324–339.Google Scholar
  274. see Robert Rhodes, “Internationalism and Social Consciousness in the Black Community,” Freedomways 12 (1972), 230–236.Google Scholar
  275. see Hollis R. Lynch, Black American Radicals and the Liberation of Africa: The Council on African Affairs, 1937–1955 (Ithaca, NY: Africana Studies and Research Center, Cornell University, 1978)Google Scholar
  276. Penny M. Von Eschen, Race Against Empire: Black Americans and Anticolonialism, 1937–1957 (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1997).Google Scholar
  277. 190.
    For a recent history of the Black Panther Party, see Joshua Bloom and Waldo E. Martin, Black against Empire: The History and Politics of the Black Panther Party (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013).Google Scholar
  278. See also Elain Brown, A Taste of Power: A Black Woman’s Story (New York: Pantheon Books, 1992).Google Scholar
  279. 191.
    Mike Davis, Prisoners of the American Dream: Politics and Economy in the History of the US Working Class (London: Verso, 1986), 257.Google Scholar
  280. 192.
    Cedric Johnson, Revolutionaries to Race Leaders: Black Power and the Making of African American Politics (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2007), 128.Google Scholar
  281. 193.
    Stokely Carmichael, “What We Want,” New York Review of Books (September 22, 1966), 8.Google Scholar
  282. 194.
    For a rightist critique of the concept of Black Power, see Bayard Rustin, “‘Black Power’ and Coalition Politics,” Commentary (September 1966), 35–40.Google Scholar
  283. See also, Robert Lee Scott and Wayne Brockriede, The Rhetoric of Black Power (New York: Harper & Row, 1969)Google Scholar
  284. 197.
    Adolph Reed, “The Study of Black Politics and the Practice of Black Politics: Their Historical Relation and Evolution,” in Problems and Methods in the Study of Politics, ed. Ian Shapiro (Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 111.Google Scholar
  285. 198.
    Adolph Reed, Stirrings in the Jug: Black Politics in the Post-Segregation Era (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999), 121.Google Scholar
  286. 199.
    See Robert E. Weems, Jr. and Lewis A. Randolph, “The Ideological Origins of Richard M. Nixon’s ‘Black Capitalism’ Intiative,” The Review of Black Political Economy 29(1) (Summer 2001), 49–61.Google Scholar
  287. For a critique of Black Power, see Eldridge Cleaver, “Open Letter to Stokely Carmichael,” in The Black Panthers Speak, ed. Philip S. Foner (New York: Da Capo Press, 1995[1970]), 104–108.Google Scholar
  288. 200.
    See Andrew Brimmer, “Black Banks: High Risks and Slow Growth,” Black Enterprise (March 1987), 31.Google Scholar
  289. 201.
    See Christopher Strain, “Soul City, North Carolina: Black Power, Utopia, and the African American Dream,” The Journal of African American History 89(1) (Winter 2004), 57–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. 202.
    Joshua D. Farrington, “‘Build, Baby, Build’: Conservative Black Nationalists, Free Enterprise, and the Nixon Administration,” in The Right Side of the Sixties: Reexamining Conservatism’s Decade of Transformation, ed. Laura Jane Gifford and Daniel K. Williams (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012), 61–80.Google Scholar
  291. 203.
    See Robert Lekachman, Greed Is Not Enough: Reaganomics (New York: Pantheon Books, 1982)Google Scholar
  292. Ken, Cole, John Cameron, and Chris Edwards, Why Economists Disagree: The Political Economy of Economics (London: Longman, 1983)Google Scholar
  293. Bob Rowthorn, Capitalism, Conflict, and Inflation: Essays in Political Economy (London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1980).Google Scholar
  294. 204.
    see Benjamin Ginsberg, The Fall of the Faculty: The Rise of the All-Administrative University and Why It Matters (New York: Oxford University Press, 2013).Google Scholar
  295. see Ahmed Shawki, “China: From Mao to Deng,” International Socialist Review 1 (Summer 1997), http://www.isreview.org/issues/01/mao_to_deng_l.shtml. See also, David Harvey, A Brief History of Neoliberalism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005).Google Scholar
  296. 205.
    Norman Harris, “‘Can the Big Dog Run?’ Developing African American Studies at the University of Georgia,” in Africana Studies: A Disciplinary Quest for Both Theory and Method, ed. James L. Conyers (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1997), 55.Google Scholar
  297. 206.
    See John Arena, “Bringing in the Black Working Class: The Black Urban Regime Strategy,” Science and Society 75(2) (April 2011), 153–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. See, for example, Cornel West, Race Matters (Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1993).Google Scholar
  299. 207.
    William J. Wilson, The Declining Significance of Race: Blacks and Changing American Institutions (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978).Google Scholar
  300. see Steven Rosenthal, “How Liberal Ideology Assists the Growth of Fascism: A Critique of the Sociology of William Julius Wilson,” Journal of Poverty 3(2) (1999), 67–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. For a discussion of the concept of underclass by African American philosophers, see The Underclass Question, ed. Bill Lawson (Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1992).Google Scholar
  302. 209.
    Adolph Reed, Class Notes: Posing as Politics and Other Thoughts on the American Scene (New York: The New Press, 2000), 50.Google Scholar
  303. 210.
    For a leftist analysis of the Million Man March, see Sundiata Keita Cha-Jua and Clarence Lang, “Providence, Patriarchy, Pathology: Louis Farrakhan’s Rise & Decline,” New Politics 6(2) (Winter 1997), 47–71.Google Scholar
  304. See also Adolph Reed, “The Rise of Louis Farrakhan,” in Class Notes: Posing as Politics and Other Thoughts on the American Scene (New York: The New Press, 2000), 37–60.Google Scholar
  305. 211.
    see Bernard Ortiz de Montellano, “Melanin, Afrocentricity and Pseudoscience,” Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 36 (1993), 33–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. 212.
    This paraphrases a line from Paul Beatty’s remarkable novel, Slumberland (New York: Bloomsbury, 2008), 3–4.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Stephen C. Ferguson II 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen C. FergusonII

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations