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28 February 1973

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Part of the Michel Foucault book series (MFL)

Abstract

I HAVE TRIED TO answer the question of the transfer of the penitentiary element into the penal apparatus by showing that the notion of “seditious mobs” was not sufficient to resolve the problems. In its place I have introduced the more operational notion of lower-class illegalism (illégalisme populaire). Now, it seems to me that under the Ancien Régime this illegalism formed a system with the illegalisms of the other social classes and that, coupled more precisely and closely with bourgeois illegalism, it contributed to the development of capitalist society. Finally, at a certain point, this illegalism was no longer tolerable to the class that had just taken power, because wealth, in its materiality, is spatialized in new forms1 and runs the risk of being attacked frontally by a lower-class illegalism that, henceforth, would not clash with the system of the laws and regulations of power, but with its goods themselves in their material existence.

Keywords

Eighteenth Century Rural Space Social Pact Supervise Property Operational Notion 
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Notes

  1. 5.
    See H. Wallon, La Révolution du 31 mai et le fédéralisme en 1793 (Paris: Hachette & Companie, 1886) 2 volumes;Google Scholar
  2. C. Riffaterre, Le Mouvement antijacob in et antiparisien à Lyon et dans le Rhòne-et-Loire en 1793, 2 volumes (Lyon: A. Rey, 1912 and 1928).Google Scholar
  3. 6.
    See M. Cubells, Les Horizons de la liberté. Naissance de la Révolution en Provence (1787–1789) (Aix: Édisud, 1987) pp. 92–109.Google Scholar
  4. 7.
    F. L. Lamartine, Mémoire sur une question d’agriculture et d’économie politique, relative à la cotisation des prairies artificielles et aux moyens de pourvoir à leur conservation (Dijon: Desay, March 1793),Google Scholar
  5. in L’Esprit des journaux Français et étrangers (Paris: Valade, 1795) vol. V, Sept.-Oct. 1795, pp. 119–120.Google Scholar
  6. 8.
    See H.-A. Tessier, Annales de l’agriculture française, contenant des observations et des mémoires sur l’agriculture en général (Paris: Huzard, 1797 [Year VI]) 4 volumes, vol. I, p. 371.Google Scholar
  7. 9.
    See H. de Balzac, Le Contract de mariage (1835),Google Scholar
  8. English translation by F. Jellinek, I, Pierre Rivière, having slaughtered my mother, my sister, and my brother … A case of parricide in the 19th century (New York: Pantheon, 1975; Harmondsworth: Peregrine, 1978) pp. 53–121 (“The Memoir”).Google Scholar
  9. 13.
    See E. Gabory, Les Guerres de Vendée (Paris: Robert Laffont, 2009 [1912–1931]);Google Scholar
  10. L. Dubreuil, Histoire des insurrections de l’Ouest (Paris: Rieder, 2 volumes, 1929–1930);Google Scholar
  11. G. Walter, La Guerre de Vendée (Paris: Plon, 1953);Google Scholar
  12. C. Tilly, La Vendée. Révolution et contre-révolution (Paris: Fayard, 1970).Google Scholar
  13. 15.
    cited in M. Juillard, Le Brigandage et la Contrabande en Haute-Auvergne au XVIIIe siècle (Aurillac: Imprimerle moderne, 1937) p. 24.Google Scholar
  14. 16.
    quoted in abbé Maurel, Le Brigandage dans les Basses-Alpes (Marseille: P. Ruat, 1899) part II, ch. II.Google Scholar
  15. 18.
    See M. Target, “Observations sur le Projet de Code criminel” in Jean-Guillaume Locré, Législation civile, commerciale et criminelle, ou Commentaire et complément des Codes Français (Brussels: Société typographique belge, 1837) vol. XV, pp. 2–16, esp. p. 5.Google Scholar
  16. 19.
    in L. Althusser, E. Balibar, R. Establet, P. Macherey, and J. Rancière, Lire Le Capital (Paris: Maspero, 1968 [1965]) 2 volumes;Google Scholar
  17. English translation by Ben Brewster, “From Capital to Marx’s Philosophy” in L. Althusser and E. Balibar, Reading Capital (London: New Left Books, 1970)Google Scholar
  18. 20.
    provoked by Jacques Derrida’s work, De la grammatologie (Paris: Éditions de Minuit, 1967), p. 227;Google Scholar
  19. English translation Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, Of Grammatology (Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998, corrected edition) p. 158;Google Scholar
  20. see also, by the same author, Limited Ine (Paris: Galilée, 1990), p. 273;Google Scholar
  21. English translation Samuel Weber and Jeffrey Mehlman, Limited Inc (Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1988).Google Scholar

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© Graham Burchell 2015

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