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31 January 1973

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Part of the Michel Foucault book series (MFL)

Abstract

A NUMBER OF PUNITIVE models can be derived from the re-centering of penal theory and practice around the principle of the criminal-social enemy* Now these models, perfectly derivable from the theory and practice, are precisely not those that are implemented when one passes from plan to legislation, from the statement of principles to real organization. There is a moment, in discourse and practice, when something else is substituted for what was derivable, as we see in Le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau.* This something else is the prison-form.

Keywords

Criminal Justice Death Penalty Penal Code Religious Establishment Penal System 
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Notes

  1. 2.
    For a more recent discussion, see A. Davidson, “On Epistemology and Archeology: From Canguilhem to Foucault” in A. Davidson, The Emergence of Sexuality: Historical Epistemology and the Formation of Concepts (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004) pp. 192–206.Google Scholar
  2. 5.
    J.-G. Petit, N. Castan, C. Faugeron, M. Faugeron, M. Pierre, and A. Zysberg, Histoire des galères, bagnes et prisons. Introduction à l’histoire pénale de la France, Preface by Michèle Perrot (Toulouse: Privat, “Bibliothèque historique Privat,” 1991, pp. 26–28Google Scholar
  3. J. B. Given, “Dans l’ombre de la prison. La prison de l’Inquisition dans la société languedocienne” in Isabelle Heullant-Donat, Julie Claustre, and Élisabeth Lusset, ed., Enfermements. Le cloître et la prison (VIe–XVIIIe siècle), (Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne, 2011) pp. 305–320.Google Scholar
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    see B. Garnot, Justice et Société en France aux XVIe, XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles (Gap-Paris, Éd. Ophrys, “Synthèse histoire,” 2000) p. 120.Google Scholar
  5. 7.
    see: C. Vogel, “Les sanctions infligées aux laîques et aux clercs par les conciles gallo-romains et mérovingiens,” Revue de droit canonique, vol. 2, 1952, pp. 186–188Google Scholar
  6. A. Lefebvre-Teillard, “Les officialités à la veille du concile de Trente,” Revue internationale de droit comparé, vol. 25 (4), 1973, p. 85Google Scholar
  7. 8.
    C. Quétel, De Par le Roy. Essai sur les lettres de cachet, Toulouse: Privat, 1981, pp. 174–175Google Scholar
  8. C. Quétel, “En maison de force au siècle des Lumières,” Cahiers des Annales de Normandie, no. 13, 1981, pp. 43–79Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    On the question of the laicization of confinement—from canonical to penal confinement—see: A. Porteau-Bitker, “L’emprisonnement dans le droit laïque au Moyen Âge,” Revue historique de droit Français et étranger, no. 46, 1968, pp. 211–245 and pp. 389–428Google Scholar
  10. J. Leclercq, “Le cloître est-il une prison?” Revue d’ascétique et de mystique, vol. 47, no. 188, Oct.-Dec. 1971, pp. 407–420.Google Scholar
  11. 10.
    See, B. R. White, The English Separatist Tradition: From the Marian Martyrs to the Pilgrim Fathers (London: Oxford University Press, 1971)Google Scholar
  12. M. R. Watts, The Dissenters (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1978), 2 volumes.Google Scholar
  13. 11.
    See: W. C. Braithwaite, The Beginnings of Quakerism (London: Macmillan and Co., 1912)Google Scholar
  14. W. C. Braithwaite, The Second Period of Quakerism (London: Macmillan and Co., 1919)Google Scholar
  15. H. H. Brinton, Friends for 300 Years: The History and Beliefs of the Society of Friends since George Fox started the Quaker Movement (New York: Harper, 1952)Google Scholar
  16. P. Brodin, Les Quakers en Amérique du Nord: au XVIIe siècle et au début du XVIIIe (Paris: Dervy-Livres, 1985).Google Scholar
  17. 12.
    J.-L. Halpérin, Histoire des droits en Europe de 1750 à nos jours (Paris: Flammarion, 2004) p. 62.Google Scholar
  18. 13.
    See E. Burroughs, The Memorable Works of a Son of Thunder and Consolation: Namely That True Prophet and Faithful Servant of God, and Sufferer for the Testimony of Jesus, Edward Burroughs, Who Dyed a Prisoner for the Word of God in the City of London, the Fourteenth of the Twelfth Month, 1662 (London: Ellis Hookes, 1672, ch. xGoogle Scholar
  19. 15.
    George Fox (1624–1691, founder of the Society of Friends) An Autobiography, ed., Rufus M. Jones (Philadelphia: Ferris and Leach, 1904) p. 87Google Scholar
  20. 17.
    J. T. Sellin, Pioneering in Penology: The Amsterdam Houses of Correction in the Sixteenth and Seventeeth Centuries (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1944).Google Scholar
  21. 18.
    F.-A.-F de La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Des Prisons de Philadelphie, par un Européen (Paris: Du Pont, 1796 [“Year V of the Republic”]), p. 11.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    J. Hoareau-Dodineau, Die et le Roi. La répression du blasphème et de l’injure au roi à la fin du Moyen Âge (Limoges: Presses universitaires de Limoges, 2002) pp. 169–211, see p. 205.Google Scholar
  23. See: Y. Thomas, “L’Institution de la Majesté,” Revue de synthèse, 1991, nos. 3–4, pp. 331–386Google Scholar
  24. J. Chiffoleau, “Sur le crime de majesté médieval” in Genèse de l’État moderne en Méditerranée. Approches historique et anthropologique des pratiques et des représentations (Rome: “Collection de l’École française de Rome,” 1993) pp. 183–213.Google Scholar

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© Graham Burchell 2015

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