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10 January 1973

Chapter
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Part of the Michel Foucault book series (MFL)

Abstract

I WOULD LIKE TO clarify the elements of this analysis.* First, during the period I will be dealing with, from 1825 to 1848, at the moment of the setting up and functioning of the great penal system to which the 1808 Code of criminal procedure (Code d’instruction criminelle) and the 1810 Penal Code had given the main lines, one thing is clear: we are in the midst of social war, which is not the war of all against all, but the war of rich against poor, of owners against those who have nothing, of bosses against proletarians.

Keywords

Eighteenth Century Public Action Penal Code Public Prosecutor Penal System 
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Notes

  1. 1.
    M. Bernard, “Discours à la Chambre des députés,” 23 November 1831, in Archives parlementaires de 1787 à 1860. Recueil complet des débats législatfs et politiques des Chambres françaises, deuxième série (Paris: Paul Dupont, 1889) vol. LXXII (from 23 November 1831 to 22 December 1831) p. 5.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    N. H. Julius, Vorselungen über die Gefängnisskunde (Berlin: Stuhr, 1828) 2 volumes; Leçons sur les prisons, présentées en forme de cours au public de Berlin, en l’année 1827, trans., (vol. I), H. Lagarmitte (Paris: F. G. Levrault, 1831) p. 384.Google Scholar
  3. N. H. Julius, Nord-amerikas sittliche Zustände, nach eigenen Anschauungen in den Jahren 1834, 1835 und 1836 (Leipzig: F. A. Brockhaus, 1839)Google Scholar
  4. Tocqueville, Du système pénitentiaire aux États-Unis et de son application en France, suivi d’un appendice sur les colonies pénales et de notes statistiques (Paris: H. Fournier Jeune, 1833), 3rd edition expanded with the “Rapport de M. de Tocqueville sur le projet de loi de Réforme des prisons …” (Paris: Librairie de Charles Gosselin, 1845)Google Scholar
  5. see A. Krebs, “Julius, Nikolaus Heinrich” in Neue Deutsche Biographie, Bd. 10, 1974, pp. 656–658.Google Scholar
  6. 3.
    see, M. Foucault, “L’œil du pouvoir,” interview with J.-P. Barou and M. Perrot, in J.-P. Barou, ed., Le Panoptique (Paris: Pierre Belfond, 1977) p. 9Google Scholar
  7. English translation by Colin Gordon, “The Eye of Power” in M. Foucault, Power/Knowledge. Selected Interviews and Other Writings 1972–1977, ed., C. Gordon (Brighton: The Harvester Press, 1980) p. 146.Google Scholar
  8. English translation by Graham Burchell, “Course Summary” in, Psychiatric Power. Lectures at the Collège de France, 1973–1974, English series editor, Arnold I. Davidson (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006) p. 346.Google Scholar
  9. The seminar will result in the publication of B. Barret-Kriegel, A. Thalamy, F. Beguin, and B. Fortier, Les Machines à guerir. Aux origines de l’hôpital moderne (Brussels: Pierre Mardaga, “Architecture-Archives,” 1979).Google Scholar
  10. 4.
    Concerning Foucault’s references to the “spectacle,” see G. Debord, La Société du spectacle (Paris: Buchet/Chastel, 1967).Google Scholar
  11. 6.
    See Jean Treilhard, Jean-Baptiste Treilhard, ministre plénipotentiaire de la République au Congrès de Rastadt (Paris: Éd. Gaillon, 1939).Google Scholar
  12. 9.
    Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, ed., C. B. Macpherson (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1968) ch. xiii, p. 187.Google Scholar
  13. Foucault uses the French translation by François Tricaud, Le Léviathan. Traité de la matière, de la forme et du pouvoir de la république ecclésiastique et civile (Paris: Sirey, 1971)Google Scholar
  14. 20.
    With regard to these themes, Foucault also made use of the work of Paul Bois, especially, Paysans de l’Ouest. Des structures économiques et sociales aux options politiques depuis l’époque révolutionnaire dans la Sarthe (Le Mans: Mouton, 1960).Google Scholar
  15. 21.
    English translation by Graham Burchell, Security, Territory, Population. Lectures at the Collège de France, 1977–1978, English series editor, Arnold I. Davidson (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007), pp. 29–49; pp. 318–328; pp. 335–343.Google Scholar
  16. 22.
    See B. Porchnev, Les Soulèvements populaires en France de 1623 à 1648 (Paris: SEVPEN, “EPHE, VIe section/CRH. Œuvres étrangers,” 4, 1963) pp. 303–502.Google Scholar
  17. O. Festy, Les Délits ruraux et leur répression sous la Révolution et le Consulat. Étude d’histoire économique (Paris: Librarne M. Riviere, “Bibliothèque d’histoire économique,” 1956)Google Scholar
  18. M. Agulhon, La Vie sociale en Provence intérieure au lendemain de la Révolution (Paris: Société des études robespierristes, “Bibliothèque d’histoire révolutionnaire,” 1970)Google Scholar
  19. Y.-M. Bercé, Croquants et Nu-pieds. Les soulèvements paysans en France du XVIe au XIXe siècle (Paris: Gallimard, “Archives,” 55, 1974) p. 161.Google Scholar
  20. For a more recent work, see J.-L. Ménard, La Révolte des Nu-Pieds en Normandie au XVIIe siècle (Paris: Éd. Dittmar, 2005).Google Scholar
  21. 24.
    E. J. Hobsbawm, “The Machine Breakers,” Past and Present, 1, 1952, pp. 57–70.Google Scholar
  22. On the writings of the Luddite movement, see K. Binfield, ed., Writings of the Luddites (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004).Google Scholar
  23. 25.
    See K. Navickas, “The Search for ‘General Ludd’: the Mythology of Luddism,” Social History, vol. 30(3), 2005, pp. 281–295Google Scholar
  24. P. Minard, “Le retour de Ned Ludd. Le luddisme et ses interprétations,” Revue d’histoire moderne et contemporaine, vol. 54(1), January-March 2007, pp. 242–257.Google Scholar
  25. 28.
    See C. Beccaria, Dei delitti e delle pene (Livorno: 1764)Google Scholar
  26. French translation by the abbé André Morellet, Traité des délits et des peines, traduit de l’italien, d’après la troisième édition, revue, corrigée et augmentés par l’Auteur (Lausanne, 1766)Google Scholar
  27. Maurice Chevallier, with a Preface by Robert Badinter, Des délits etdes peines (Paris: Flammarion, 1991)Google Scholar
  28. English translation Richard Davies with Virginia Cox and Richard Bellamy, “On Crimes and Punishments” in On Crimes and Punishments and Other Writings, ed., Richard Bellamy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995).Google Scholar
  29. See B. E. Harcourt, “Beccaria, Dei delitti e delle pene” in Dictionnaire des grandes œuvres juridiques, ed., Olivier Cayl and Jean-Louis Halpérin (Paris: Dalloz, 2008) pp. 39–46.Google Scholar
  30. See C. Beccaria, Des délits et des peines (1991 translation) “Avis au lecteur,” p. 57 (definition of the just and unjust in terms of “what is useful or harmful to society”)Google Scholar
  31. 29.
    W. Paley, “Of Crimes and Punishments,” Book IV, ch. IX, in The Principles of Moral and Political Philosophy (London: R. Faulder, 1785) p. 526Google Scholar
  32. see L. Radzinowicz, A History of English Criminal Law and its Administration from 1750, vol. 1: The Movement for Reform (London: Stevens and Sons, 1948) p. 231Google Scholar
  33. 32.
    See P. Artières, L. Quéro, M. Zancarini-Fournel, eds., Le Groupe d’information sur le prisons. Archives d’une lutte, 1970–1972 (Paris: Institut Mémoires de l’édition contemporaine/IMEC, 2003)Google Scholar

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© Graham Burchell 2015

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