Advertisement

A Critical Discursive Perspective on Psychiatric Hospitals

  • Claire Bone
  • Nichola Marchant
Chapter

Abstract

Psychiatric hospitals have always been a topic of contentious debate (see O’Reilly & Lester, Introduction, this volume). Shorter (1997) pointed out that the urban world has always had to confront the problem of homeless ‘psychotic’ or ‘demented’ individuals, and so cities have organised institutions to accommodate them. There are issues of power involved when incarcerat-ing any individual, and the history of the management of mental illness is loaded with questionable practices from the time of witch-hunts, to the use of asylums, to poorhouses and state-run mental health institutions (LaFrance & McKenzie-Mohr, 2013). Media representations of psychiatric institutions are often sensationalist, horror films set in psychiatric institutions remain popular, and the ‘insane’ are frequently associated with disturbing emotions. Anti-psychiatry movements have levied many criticisms at psychiatry, particularly in relation to artificial diagnoses, over-medication, misuse of power, and questionable therapeutic outcomes (Foucault, 1965; Laing, 1967; Szasz, 2007). Indeed, current services continue to be perceived in negative ways, understandably due to ongoing scandals such as Winterbourne (Department of Health, 2012).

Keywords

Mental Illness Mental Health Service Service User Personality Disorder Psychiatric Hospital 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bayer, R. (1981). Homosexuality and American Psychiatry: The politics of diagnosis. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  2. Bhaskar, R. (1989). Reclaiming Reality: A critical introduction to contemporary philosophy. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  3. Bienefeld, D. (2013). Personality disorders [Web article]. As retrieved 17th May 2015 from: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/294307-overviewGoogle Scholar
  4. Bone, C., O’Reilly, M., Karim, K., & Vostanis, P. (2014). ‘They’re not witches … ’ Young children and their parents’ perceptions and experiences of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services. Child: Care, Health and Development, 41(3), 450–458.Google Scholar
  5. Boyle, M. (2014). Is clinical psychology fearful of social context? Why we might be, why it matters, and what we might do about it. Keynote speech at the British Psychological Society Division of Clinical Psychology Conference 2014.Google Scholar
  6. Coles, S. (2013). Personality disorder: Abandon the label, find the person. [Blog] As retrieved 12th June 2015 from: http://discursiveoftunbridgewells.blogspot.co.uk/search/label/Borderline%20Personality%20DisorderGoogle Scholar
  7. Danzinger, K. (1994). Does the history of psychology have a future? Theory and Psychology, 4, 467–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Davies, K. (2001). ‘Silent and censured travellers’? Patients’ narratives and patients’ voices: Perspectives on the history of mental illness since 1948. The Society for the Social History of Medicine, 14(2), 267–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Department of Health (2012). Transforming care: A national response to Winterbourne View Hospital. As retrieved 11th March 2015 from: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/213215/final-report.pdfGoogle Scholar
  10. Edley, N., & Wetherell, M. (2001). Jekyll and Hyde: Men’s constructions of feminism and feminists. Feminism & Psychology, 11(4), 439–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Foucault, M. (1965). Madness and civilization. A history of insanity in the Age of Reason. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  12. —. (1970). The order of things: An archeology of the human sciences. London: Tavistock.Google Scholar
  13. Fozooni, B. (2012). What is critical social research? Peterborough: Fastprint Publishing.Google Scholar
  14. Geller, J. (1992). A historical perspective on the role of the State Hospitals viewed from the era of the ‘revolving door’. American Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 1526–1533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled identity. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  16. Goicoechea, J. (2013). Invoking and inscribing mental illness: A discursive analysis of diagnostic terminology in inpatient treatment planning meetings. Feminism and Psychology, 23(1), 107–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Goodwin, D., & Guze, S. (1996). Psychiatric diagnosis (5th edition). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Grob, G. (1977). Rediscovering asylums: The unhistorical history of the mental hospital. Hastings Center Report, 33–42.Google Scholar
  19. Haraway, D. J. (1991). Simians, cyborgs and women: The reinvention of nature. London: Free Association Books.Google Scholar
  20. Hollway, W. (2012). Social psychology: Past and present. In W. Hollway, H. Lucey, A. Phoenix, & G. Lewis (Eds.), Social psychology matters (2nd edition) (pp. 27–57). Milton Keynes: The Open University.Google Scholar
  21. Horwitz, A. (2002). Creating mental illness. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  22. Jacoby, R. (1997). Social amnesia: A critique of contemporary psychology. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  23. Johnstone, E. (1998). Psychiatry — Its history and boundaries. In E. Johnstone, C. Freeman, & A. Zeally (Eds.), Companion to Psychiatric Studies (6th edition) (pp. 1–10). New York: Churchill Livingstone.Google Scholar
  24. Johnstone, L., & Dallos, R. (2014). Formulation in psychology and psychotherapy: Making sense of people’s problems. Hove: Routledge.Google Scholar
  25. LaFrance, M., & McKenzie-Mohr, S. (2013). The DSM and its lure of legitimacy. Feminism and Psychology, 23(1), 119–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Laing, R. D. (1967). The politics of experience and the bird of paradise. London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  27. Linehan, M. M. (1993). Skills training manual for treating borderline personality disorder. New York: The Guildford Press.Google Scholar
  28. Luhrmann, T. M., Padmavati, R., Tharoor, H., & Osei, A. (2014). Differences in voice-hearing experiences of people with psychosis in the USA, India and Ghana: Interview-based study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 206(1), 41–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Marecek, J., & Hare-Mustin, R. (2009). Clinical psychology: The politics of madness. In D. Fox, I. Prilleltensky, & S. Austin (Eds.), Critical psychology: An introduction (2nd edition) (pp. 75–92). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  30. Mayes, R., & Horwitz, A. (2005). DSM-III and the revolution in the classification of mentalillness. Journal of the History of the Behavioural Sciences, 41(3), 249–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mayou, R. (1989). The history of general hospital psychiatry. British Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 764–776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. O’Reilly, M., Karim, K. and Lester, J. (2015). Autism itself actually isn’t a disability”: The ideological dilemmas of negotiating a ‘normal’ versus ‘abnormal’ autistic identity. Communication & Medicine, 11(2), 139–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pilgram, D. (2007). The survival of psychiatric diagnosis. Social Science and Medicine, 6, 536–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Porter, R. (1987). Mind forg’d manacles. London: Athlone Press.Google Scholar
  35. Porter, R. (1997). The Greatest benefit to mankind: A medical history of humanity from antiquity to the present. London: Harper Collins Publishers.Google Scholar
  36. —. (2002). Madness: A brief history. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Ramesh, R. (2015). Hospital psychiatric detainees more at risk of preventable death. Guardian article, February 2015. As retrieved 6th March 2015 from: http://www.theguardian.com/society/2015/feb/23/hospital-psychiatric-prisoners-more-likely-preventabledeaths-reportGoogle Scholar
  38. Rose, N. (1990). Governing the soul: The shaping of the private self. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  39. Russo, G., & Carelli, F. (2009). Dismantling asylums: The Italian job. London Journal of Primary Care April, PMID.Google Scholar
  40. Shorter, E. (1997). A history of psychiatry: From the era of the asylum to the age of Prozac. New York: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  41. Scheff, T. (1966). Being mentally ill: A sociological theory. Chicago: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  42. Szasz, T. (1961). The myth of mental illness: Foundations of a theory of personal conduct. New York: Hoeber-Harper.Google Scholar
  43. —. (2007). Coercion as a cure: A critical history of psychiatry. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  44. Tantam, D., & Huband, N. (2009). Understanding repeated self-injury: A multidisciplinary approach. London: Palgrave-Macmillan.Google Scholar
  45. Thomas, P. (1997). The dialectics of schizophrenia. London: Free Association Books Ltd.Google Scholar
  46. Ussher, J. (2011). The madness of women: Myth and experience. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  47. Verhaeghe, P. (2014). What about me? (trans. J. Hedley-Prole). London: Scribe Publications.Google Scholar
  48. Wetherell, M., Taylor, S., & Yates, S. (2001). Discourse as data: A guide for analysis. London and Milton Keynes: Sage and the Open University.Google Scholar
  49. Wykes, T, & Callard, F. (2010). Diagnosis, diagnosis, diagnosis: Towards DSM-5. Journal of Mental Health, 19(4), 301–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Recommended reading

  1. • Jacoby, R. (1997). Social amnesia: A critique of contemporary psychology. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  2. • Johnstone, L., & Dallos, R. (2014). Formulation in psychology and psychotherapy: Making sense of people’s problems. Hove: Routledge.Google Scholar
  3. • Porter, R. (1997). The Greatest benefit to mankind: A medical history of humanity from antiquity to the present. London: Harper Collins Publishers.Google Scholar
  4. • Shorter, E. (1997). A history of psychiatry: From the era of the asylum to the age of Prozac. New York: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  5. • Thomas, P. (1997). The dialectics of schizophrenia. London: Free Association Books Ltd.Google Scholar
  6. • Ussher, J. (2011). The madness of women: Myth and experience. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Claire Bone and Nichola Marchant 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claire Bone
  • Nichola Marchant

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations