Advertisement

Architecture, Emotions and the History of Childhood

  • Roy Kozlovsky
Part of the Palgrave Studies in the History of Emotions book series (Palgrave Studies in the History of Emotions)

Abstract

Can buildings readily be interpreted as cultural documents that encode attitudes towards children and their emotions? Or do they perhaps play a more active, dynamic role in the emotional construction of childhood? This chapter explores the place of architectural culture within the field of childhood studies and the history of emotions. The use of architecture as a document of emotional and childhood history was pioneered by Philippe Ariès. In Centuries of Childhood, he counterpoised textual documents with material artefacts such as paintings, clothing, toys and, pertinent to our subject, architecture to chart the historical development of a caring and loving sentiment towards children. He compared the layout of the medieval house with that of the eighteenth-century mansion to historicize the crystallization of the modern family as an emotional unit. The pre-childhood house was a heterogeneous social unit that was public in character. It was occupied by the master, his wife and their children, as well as servants and apprentices, and was frequented by a multitude of people. Consequently, ‘nobody was left alone’ in the house.1 With the advent of the modern ideal of childhood, which entailed a different emotional and caring attitude towards one’s children, there emerged a ‘need’ to separate the affairs of the family from the intrusion of others by rearranging the house into private and public zones. Ariès tied the specialization of rooms in the house, as well as the invention of the corridor, to such emotional ‘need’ for intimacy.

Keywords

Emotional Construction Emotional Space Emotional Style American Historical Review Branch Street 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    Philippe Ariès, Centuries of Childhood: A Social History of Family Life (New York: Vintage Books, 1962), 398.Google Scholar
  2. 3.
    Sarah Williams Goldhagen and Réjean Legault, Anxious Modernisms: Experimentation in Postwar Architectural Culture (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000).Google Scholar
  3. 4.
    Le Corbusier, Toward an Architecture (Los Angeles: Getty Research Institute, 2007), 249.Google Scholar
  4. 5.
    Ulrich Conrads, Programs and Manifestoes on 20th-Century Architecture (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997), 119.Google Scholar
  5. 6.
    Sigfried Giedion, Space, Time and Architecture: The Growth of a New Tradition, 3rd edn (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1954), 13.Google Scholar
  6. 7.
    A contemporary example of a phenomenological reading of architecture and its emotional significance is Juhani Pallasmaa, The Eyes of the Skin: Architecture and the Senses (London: Academy Editions, 1996). See the discussion in Chapter 7 of this volume.Google Scholar
  7. 8.
    Mark Jarzombek, The Psychologizing of Modernity: Art, Architecture, and History (Cambridge University Press, 2000), 72.Google Scholar
  8. 9.
    Peter N. Stearns and Carol Z. Stearns, ‘Emotionology: Clarifying the History of Emotions and Emotional Standards’, American Historical Review 90(4) (1985), 813–836, here 830–831.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 10.
    David Canter, Psychology for Architects (London: Applied Science Publishers, 1974), 3.Google Scholar
  10. 11.
    Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, ‘Design and Order in Everyday Life’, Design Issues 8(1) (1991), 26–34, here 34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 13.
    E.R. Robson, School Architecture (Leicester University Press, 1972), 6.Google Scholar
  12. 14.
    Bill Hillier and Julienne Hanson, The Social Logic of Space (Cambridge University Press, 1988), 2.Google Scholar
  13. 15.
    Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (New York: Vintage Books, 1995), 141.Google Scholar
  14. 16.
    Thomas A. Markus, Buildings and Power: Freedom and Control in the Origin of Modern Building Types (London: Routledge 1993), 125. See the discussion of Markus and his impact on the study of emotions in Chapter 7 in this volume.Google Scholar
  15. 17.
    Kim Rasmussen, ‘Places for Children — Children’s Places’, Childhood 11 (2) (2004), 155–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 18.
    The term was developed by the architectural historian Elizabeth Cromley. See discussion of the concept in Abigail A. van Slyck, A Manufactured Wilderness: Summer Camps and the Shaping of American Youth, 1890–1960 (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2006), xxxi.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 20.
    William M. Reddy, ‘Against Constructionism: The Historical Ethnography of Emotions’, Current Anthropology 38(3) (1997), 327–351, here 331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 21.
    Harry Hendrick, ‘Children’s Emotional Well-being and Mental Health in Early Post-Second World War Britain: The Case of Unrestricted Hospital Visiting’, Clio Medica: The Wellcome Series in the History of Medicine 71 (2003), 213–242, here 214.Google Scholar
  19. 22.
    Susan Isaac,(ed.), The Cambridge Evacuation Survey; A Wartime Study in Social Welfare and Education (London: Methuen, 1941), 11.Google Scholar
  20. 23.
    Richard M. Titmuss, Problems of Social Policy (London: HMSO, 1950), 538.Google Scholar
  21. 24.
    Nikolas Rose, Governing the Soul: The Shaping of the Private Self (London: Routledge, 1990), 121.Google Scholar
  22. 26.
    Marjory Allen, Planning for Play (London: Thames & Hudson, 1968), 18–19.Google Scholar
  23. 28.
    Marie Paneth, Branch Street: A Sociological Study (London: Allen & Unwin, 1944), 120.Google Scholar
  24. 31.
    Anna Freud and Dorothy T. Burlingham, War and Children (New York: Medical War Books, 1943), 191.Google Scholar
  25. 36.
    John Mays, Adventure in Play (Liverpool Council of Social Service, 1957), 27.Google Scholar
  26. 38.
    Marjory Allen, Junk Playgrounds (London: National Under Fourteens Council, 1948), 3.Google Scholar
  27. 39.
    Barbara H. Rosenwein, ‘Worrying about Emotions in History’, American Historical Review 107(3) (2002), 821–845, here 834–836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 41.
    Lindsay Prior, ‘The Architecture of the Hospital: A Study of Spatial Organization and Medical Knowledge’, British Journal of Sociology 39(1) (1988), 86–113, here 101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 42.
    Ministry of Health, The Welfare of Children in Hospital (London: HMSO, 1959), sec. 6, 2.Google Scholar
  30. 45.
    J[ames] C. Spence, ‘The Care of Children in Hospital’, British Medical Journal 1(4490) (1947),125–130, here 127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 51.
    Nuffield Foundation Division for Architectural Studies, Children in Hospital: Studies in Planning (London: Oxford University Press for the Nuffield Foundation, 1963), 58.Google Scholar
  32. 55.
    John Bowlby, Attachment and Loss, vol. 1, Attachment (New York: Basic Books, 1969), 27.Google Scholar
  33. 58.
    Catherine Burke and Ian Grosvenor, School (London: Reaktion, 2008), 67–118.Google Scholar
  34. 59.
    Monique Scheer, ‘Are Emotions a Kind of Practice (and is that What Makes Them Have a History)? A Bourdieuian Approach to Understanding Emotion’, History & Theory 51(2) (2012), 193–220, here 212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 60.
    Herbert Read, Education through Art (New York: Pantheon, 1945), 277.Google Scholar
  36. 62.
    Arthur Stone, Story of a School: A Headmaster’s Experiences with Children Aged Seven and Eleven, Ministry of Education Pamphlet no. 14 (London: HMSO, 1949), 14.Google Scholar
  37. 66.
    Ministry of Education, Moving and Growing: Physical Education in the Primary School: Part One, Education Pamphlet no. 24 (London: HMSO, 1952), 37.Google Scholar
  38. 68.
    Mick Donovan, Gareth Jones, and Ken Hardman, ‘Physical Education and Sport in England: Dualism, Partnership and Delivery Provision’, Kinesiology 38 (1) (2006), 16–27.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Roy Kozlovsky 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roy Kozlovsky

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations