Advertisement

Chiefs and Protectorate Administration in Colonial Gambia, 1894–1965

  • Hassoum Ceesay
Chapter
  • 117 Downloads
Part of the Palgrave Studies in African Leadership book series (PSAL)

Abstract

District chiefs represented a tangible example of African leadership during British colonial rule in Gambia. Even when the educated elite that comprised mainly Aku fell out of favor with the colonial rulers from the 1920s onwards, chiefs continued to play a very important yet little studied role in the strengthening and, ironically, the dismantling of colonial rule in Gambia. Through the Indirect Rule system perfected by Lord Lugard in Northern Nigeria from 1914, the British used the traditional leadership roles of chiefs to augment their minimal administrative capacity in their West African colonies such as Gambia. The abysmally low literacy levels in Gambia during the colonial era, coupled with the almost complete absence of communication infrastructure, such as roads or railways, and the peculiar shape of its territory, meant that British rule had to depend on traditional leadership agents, initiatives, and structures—including chiefs—to maintain a firm grip until independence in 1965.1

Keywords

Colonial Rule Colonial Government Legislative Council Peace Research Colonial Authority 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

Unpublished Archival Sources (Gambia National Archives, Banjul)

  1. “Armitage School Report,” EDU 1/157.Google Scholar
  2. “Armitage School,” EDU 2/2.Google Scholar
  3. “Annual Conference of Chiefs,” 1958, ARP3/16.Google Scholar
  4. “Banishment of Mansajang Sanyang,” CRN 1/6.Google Scholar
  5. “Conditions in Upper Saloum District,” CRM 1/3.Google Scholar
  6. “Confidential Report on Chiefs,” CRN 1/24.Google Scholar
  7. “Debts of Chiefs,” CSO 3/128.Google Scholar
  8. “Divisional Report,” ARP 34/1, 1943.Google Scholar
  9. “Divisional Report,” ARP 34/4, 1946.Google Scholar
  10. “Notes on the History of the Upper Saloum District,” CRM 1/2.Google Scholar

Newspapers and Magazines

  1. Daily Observer (Banjul)Google Scholar
  2. Daily Graphic (Accra) (National Archives of Ghana)Google Scholar
  3. Gambia Echo (Bathurst)Google Scholar
  4. Gambia Gazette (Bathurst)Google Scholar
  5. Gambia News Bulletin (Bathurst)Google Scholar

Interview

  1. Pa Kakai Sanyang (son of Fa Ture Sanyang, chief of Faraba, Kombo East, 1939–1972), Brikama Town, December 12, 2013.Google Scholar

Books, Articles, and Dissertations

  1. Agbor, J. A., J. W. Fedderke, and N. A. Viegi, Theory of Colonial Governance, http://web.up.ac.za/sitefiles/file/40/677/a%20theory%20of%20colonial%20governance%2028_01_2010.pdf.
  2. Archer, Francis Bisset, The Gambia Colony and Protectorate: An Official Handbook, Frank Cass: London, 1906.Google Scholar
  3. Armitage, Sir C., “The Gambia Colony and Protectorate,” Journal of the Royal African Society of Arts, Vol. 76, No. 3944 (1944), p. 88–98.Google Scholar
  4. Ceesay, Ebrima, The Military and “Democratisation” in the Gambia, Victoria, BC: Trafford Publishers, 2006.Google Scholar
  5. Ceesay, Hassoum, “Chiefs in Gambian Politics (1894–1994),” Daily Observer (Banjul), September 4, 1996.Google Scholar
  6. —, Gambian Women: An Introductory History, Banjul: Fulladu Publishers, 2007.Google Scholar
  7. —, “Kamara, Kemintang,” edited by Oxford American Studies Centre, http/www.oxfordaasc.com/article/t356/e0032 (accessed February 14, 2014) .
  8. —. “Fatou Khan” in Akyeampong and Gates Jr. (Eds), Dictionary of African Biography, New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.Google Scholar
  9. Crowder, Michael, “Indirect Rule-French and British Style” in Klein and Johnson (Eds), Perspectives on the African Past, London: Little Brown, 1972.Google Scholar
  10. Galtung, J., “Violence, Peace, and Peace Research,” Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 6 (1969), p. 69–71.Google Scholar
  11. Gamble, David, A Review of Development Schemes in the Gambia, Brisbane, CA, 2007.Google Scholar
  12. Gamble, David, Linda K. Salmon, and Alhaji Assan N’jie. The Peoples of the Gambia: The Wollof, Brisbane, CA, 1985.Google Scholar
  13. Gray, J. M., A History of the Gambia. London: Frank Cass, 1940.Google Scholar
  14. Hughes, Arnold, and David Perfect. Historical Dictionary of the Gambia. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, Inc, 2008.Google Scholar
  15. Kabwegyere, Tarsis B., “The Dynamics of Colonial Violence: The Inductive System in Uganda,” Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 9, No. 4 (1972), p. 303–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kingsland, James, “A Gambian Chieftaincy Election,” The Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol. 15, No. 4 (1977).Google Scholar
  17. Mahoney, F., Stories of the Senegambia, Banjul: BPMRU, 1986.Google Scholar
  18. Price, J. H., “Some Notes on the Influence of Women on Gambian politics,” Proceedings of the Institute of Economic and Social Research Conference (1958), p. 76–84.Google Scholar
  19. Orde, M. H., “Development of Local Government in Rural Areas in the Gambia,” Journal of Local Administration Overseas, Vol. 4, No. 1 (1965), p. 3–5.Google Scholar
  20. Peoples’ Progressive Party (PPP), The Story of the PPP (1959–1989), Banjul: Baroueli Publishers, 1992.Google Scholar
  21. Rathbone, Richard. Nkrumah and the Chiefs: Politics of Chieftaincy in Ghana, 1951–1960. James Currey: Oxford, 1999.Google Scholar
  22. Saine, Abdoulaye, E. Ceesay, and E. Sall (Eds). State and Society in the Gambia, Trenton, NJ: Third World Press, 2013.Google Scholar
  23. Southern, Lady Bella. The Groundnut Colony, London: Longman, 1946.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Baba G. Jallow 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hassoum Ceesay

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations