Advertisement

Relational and Structural Violence

Chapter
  • 246 Downloads

Abstract

If we define violence as deliberately causing harm to another person, we must also include attempts to harm someone’s self-appreciation, relationships with other people, or social standing. Such forms of relational violence are often based on prejudice and downright hatred of people classified on the basis of class, ethnicity, religion, sex, or sexual orientation. These attitudes might be crystallized in social or communal structures within which these classifications are used to position, manipulate, and exploit people within an institutionalized hierarchy to the point that this kind of violence becomes a structural feature of the society or the community. Both relational and structural violence connect closely with at least the threat and all too often also with the practice of physical violence.

Keywords

Intimate Partner Violence Sexual Harassment Physical Violence Relational Aggression Intimate Partner Violence Sexuality 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    Torben Grodal, Embodied Visions: Evolution, Emotion, Culture, and Film, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), p. 81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Merlin Donald, A Mind So Rare: The Evolution of Human Consciousness, (New York and London: W.W. Norton & Company, 2001), p. 274.Google Scholar
  3. 4.
    Carolien Blanchard points out that “For most mammalian species, aggressive behavior appears to determine access to resources through an intermediate step, the construction of relationships of individuals that establishes their relative priority of access in advance, either through territoriality (in which the territory holder tends to drive off challengers) or in group-living animals through dominance hierarchies. That human aggression is similarly oriented towards either direct control of others or enhancement of one’s position in dominance relationships is strongly suggested by the specifics of [J.R.] Averill’s aggression motives [as reported in his Anger and Aggression: An Essay on Emotion (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1982)].” Carolien D. Blanchard, “What Can Animal Aggression Research Tell Us About Human Aggression?” Hormones and Behavior, vol. 44, no. 3, (2003), pp. 171–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 6.
    Peter Brooks, “The Mark of the Beast: Prostitution, Melodrama, and Narrative,” in Daniel Gerould (ed.), Melodrama, (New York: New York Literary Forum, 1980), p. 129.Google Scholar
  5. 7.
    Peter Brooks, The Melodramatic Imagination: Balzac, Henry James, Melodrama, and the Mode of Excess, (New York: Columbia University Press, 1985), p. 15.Google Scholar
  6. 10.
    Janet Staiger, “The Birth of a Nation: Reconsidering its Reception,” in Interpreting Films: Studies in the Historical Reception of American Cinema, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992), p. 143.Google Scholar
  7. 13.
    Hannah Arendt, On Violence, (San Diego: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1970), p. 42.Google Scholar
  8. 16.
    Morse Peckham, Beyond the Tragic Vision: The Quest for Identity in the Nineteenth Century, (New York: George Braziller, 1962), p. 247.Google Scholar
  9. 17.
    Thomas Elsaesser, “Tales of Sound and Fury,” in Bill Nichols (ed.), Movies and Methods, vol. 2, (London: University of California Press, 1985), p. 185.Google Scholar
  10. 18.
    Rainer Werner Fassbinder, “Six Films by Douglas Sirk,” trans. Thomas Elsaesser, New Left Review, vol. I/91, (1975): pp. 89, 95.Google Scholar
  11. 22.
    Catherine Wheatley, Michael Haneke’s Cinema: The Ethics of the Image, (New York and London: Berghahn Books, 2009), pp. 173–175.Google Scholar
  12. 24.
    Hilary Putnam, Meaning and the Moral Sciences (Abingdon: Routledge Revivals, 2010), p. 87.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Henry Bacon 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of HelsinkiFinland

Personalised recommendations