Die Antwoord: The Answer to the Unspoken Question
- 128 Downloads
A South African group Die Antwoord, which in Afrikaans means ‘the answer’, began their international career almost immediately after the recording of their first album $O$ (2009). The music they perform, defined by them as ‘zef style’, is a mix of rave and rap juxtaposed with the overwhelming visuality of their videos.1 The phenomenon of their rapid popularity seems to be the result of a striking contrast provided by their street music and the sophisticated visual brut aesthetics that is inspired by the most prominent contemporary African artists.
KeywordsPopular Music Music Genre South African Society Gang Affiliation Lady Gaga
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Androutsopoulos, Jannis (2009). ‘Language and the three spheres of hip hop’, in H. Samy Alim, Awad Ibrahim, Alastair Pennycook (eds.), Global Linguistic Flows. Hip Hop Cultures, Youth Identities and the Politics of Language (London and New York: Routledge), pp. 43–62.Google Scholar
- Bakhtin, Mikhail (1981). The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays. Translated from the Russian by Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist (Austin: University of Texas Press).Google Scholar
- Ballen, Roger (2005). Shadow Chamber (London: Phaidon).Google Scholar
- Ballen, Roger (2014). Asylum of the Birds (London: Thames and Hudson).Google Scholar
- Bennett, Andy (2001). Cultures of Popular Music (New York: Open University Press).Google Scholar
- Bhabha, Homi K. (1994). The Location of Culture (London and New York: Routledge).Google Scholar
- Connell, John and Chris Gibson (2001). Sound Tracks. Popular Music, Identity and Place (London and New York: Routledge).Google Scholar
- Die Antwoord (2013). About [Online]. www.dieantwoord.com/tension.html#about (accessed 5 April 2013).
- Forman, Murray (2004). ‘“Represent:” Race, space, and place in rap music’, in Murray Forman, Mark Anthony Neal (eds.), That’s The Joint! The Hip-Hop Studies Reader (London and New York: Routledge), pp. 201–222.Google Scholar
- Freud, Sigmund (1923 ). ‘The ego and the Id’, in The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, edited and translated by James Strachey, vol. 19 (London: Hogarth Press), pp. 12–66.Google Scholar
- Freud, Sigmund (1919 ). ‘The uncanny’, in The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, edited and translated by James Strachey, vol. 17 (London: Hogarth Press), pp. 219–252.Google Scholar
- Haupt, Adam (2012b). Static. Race and Representation in Post-Apartheid Music, Media and Film (Cape Town: HSRC Press).Google Scholar
- Huq, Rupa (2002). ‘Raving, not drowning: Authenticity, pleasure and politics in the electronic dance music scene’, in David Hesmondhalgh and Keith Negus (eds.), Popular Music Studies (London: Arnold Publishers), pp. 90–102.Google Scholar
- Huq, Rupa (2006). Beyond Subculture. Pop, Youth and Identity in a Postcolonial World (New York: Routledge).Google Scholar
- Lipsitz, George (1994). Dangerous Crossroads. Popular Music, Postmodernism and the Poetics of Place (London and New York: Verso).Google Scholar
- Lott, Eric. (1993). Love and Theft: Blackface Minstrelsy and the American Working Class (New York: Oxford University Press).Google Scholar
- Murray, Conrad Derek. ‘Hip-hop vs. high art: Notes on race as spectacle’, Art Journal, 63, pp. 4–19.Google Scholar
- Omoniyi, Tope (2009). ‘“So I choose to Di Am Naija style.” Hip hop, language, and postcolonial identities’, in H. Samy Alim, Awad Ibrahim, Alastair Pennycook (eds.), Global Linguistic Flows. Hip Hop Cultures, Youth Identities and the Politics of Language (London and New York: Routledge), pp. 113–138.Google Scholar
- du Preez, Amanda (2011). ‘Die Antwoord Gooi Zef. Liminality: Of monsters, carnivals and affects’, Image and Text 17, pp. 102–118.Google Scholar
- Rose, Tricia (1994). Black Noise: Rap Music and Black Culture in Contemporary America (Hanover and London: Wesleyan University Press).Google Scholar
- Said, Edward W. (1979). Orientalism (New York: Vintage Books).Google Scholar
- Simeziane, Sarah. (2010), ‘Roma rap and the black train: Minority voices in Hungarian hip hop’, in Marina Terkourafi (ed.), The Languages of Global Hip Hop (London, New York; Continuum), pp. 96–119.Google Scholar
- Shildrick, Margrit (2002). Embodying the Monster: Encounters with the Vulnerable Self. (London: Sage).Google Scholar
- Straight from the Horse’s Piel (2010). Directed by Kobus Holnaaier [Film]. vimeo.com/15196261 (accessed 27 August 2014).
- Take No Prisoners (2010). Added by Die Antwoord [YouTube video]. www.youtube.com/watch?v=vx1cYUb-0f4 (accessed 27 August 2014).
- Tate, Greg (2003). ‘Nigs R us, or how blackfolk became fetish objects’, in G. Tate (ed.), Everything But the Burden: What White People are Taking from Black Culture (New York: Broadway Books), pp. 1–14.Google Scholar
- Terkourafi, Marina. (2010). ‘Introduction: A fresh look at some old questions’, in Marina Terkourafi (ed.), The Languages of Global Hip Hop (London, New York: Continuum), pp. 1–18.Google Scholar
- Turner, Victor (1969). ‘Liminality and communitas’, in The Ritual Process: Structure and Anti-Structure (Chicago: Aldine Publishing), pp. 94–130.Google Scholar
- Zef Side (2009). Directed by Sean Metelerkamp [Film]. www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q77YBmtd2Rwandindex=16andlist=FL6DicDItkLQ7N4ag1JS5mqg (accessed 27 August 2014).