Literacy and Numeracy Skills among Children in Developing Countries
Young children in developing countries are at risk—due to no, little, or low quality education, and limited family resources and constrained opportunities for culturally meaningful learning. The risk is even greater for children who do not speak the majority language, endure poverty, and are members of marginalized groups including girls and religious minorities. This chapter identifies some of the foundational literacy, numeracy, and cognitive skills that children need to acquire in order to gain access to advanced educational and economic opportunities, and strategies to support these skills especially for children who are not well served by existing teaching and curricula. We identify some promising programs, research gaps, and areas where policy reforms are needed. Throughout the chapter we show how parental support, appropriate curricula, including use of the child’s first language, and effective teachers are crucial for educational achievement of all children.
KeywordsPhonological Awareness Literacy Skill Oral Reading Numeracy Skill Preschool Program
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