Features of Formulaic Sequences Used by Chinese EFL Learners in Performing a Story Retelling Assessment Task

  • Lei Wang
  • Chan Chen

Abstract

In the study of second language acquisition (SLA), many researchers have focused their attention on the ways that learners can best acquire the target language (TL). In recent years increasing attention has been paid to the mastery of formulaic sequences (FSs) or chunks in SLA (Lewis, 1993; Nattinger and DeCarrico, 1992; Willis, 1990; Wray, 2000). FSs are those ready-made lexical sequences that can be used without breaking the components into individual parts. Such patterns of language are usually perceived, learned and used as meaningful sequences that are processed as a whole, resulting in reduced learning burden and increased fluency.

Keywords

Target Language Language Acquisition Language Teaching Test Taker Assessment Task 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aitchison, J. (1987). Words in the minds. New York: Basil Blackwell Inc.Google Scholar
  2. Altenberg, B. (1998). On the phraseology of spoken English: The evidence of recurrent word combinations. In A. Cowie (ed.). Phraseology: Theory, analysis and applications (pp. 101–122). Oxford, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S., and Finegan, E. (1999). Longman grammar of spoken and written English. London: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  4. Brazil, D. (1995). A grammar of speech. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bolinger, D. (1976). Meaning and Memory. Forum Linguisticum, 1(1), 1–14.Google Scholar
  6. Coulmas, F. (1979). On the sociolinguistic relevance of routine formulae. Journal of Pragmatics, 3(3–4), 239–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cowie, A. P. (1998). Introduction. In A. P. Cowie (ed.), Phraseology: Theory, analysis and applications (pp. 1–2). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Ding, Y., & Qi, W. [丁言仁, 戚焱] (2005). Use of formulaic language as a predictor of L2 oral and written performance [词块运用与英语口语和写作水平的相关性研究]. Journal of PLA University of Foreign Languages [解放军外国语学院学报]28(3), 49–53.Google Scholar
  9. Ellis, N. C. (1996). Sequencing in SLA: Phonological memory, chunking and points of order. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 18 (1), 91–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ellis, R. (2003). Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Fillmore, W. (1976). Cognitive and social strategies in second language acquisition. Stanford University. PhD Thesis.Google Scholar
  12. Hatch, E. (1978). Second language acquisition. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House.Google Scholar
  13. Hunston, S., & Francis, G. (1999). Pattern Grammar: A corpus-driven approach to the lexical grammar of English. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  14. Kuiper, K. (1996). Smooth talkers: The linguistic performance of auctioneers and sportscasters. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  15. Leech, G. (2000). Same grammar or different grammar? Contrasting approaches to the grammar of spoken discourse. In S. Sarangi & M. Coulthard (eds.), Discourse and social life (pp. 48–65). London: Longman.Google Scholar
  16. Lewis, M. (1993). The lexical approach: The state of ELT and the way forward. Hove, England: Language Teaching Publications.Google Scholar
  17. Liu, X., & Liu, X. [刘晓玲, 刘鑫鑫] (2009). A corpus-based study on the structural types and pragmatic functions of lexical chunks in college English writing [基于语料库的大学生书面语词块结构类型和语用功能研究]. Chinese Foreign Language [中国外语], 6(2), 48–53.Google Scholar
  18. Morrow, L. M. (1985). Retelling stories: A strategy for improving children’s comprehension, concept of story structure and oral language complexity. Elementary School Journal, 85(5), 647–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Morrow, L. M. (1986). Effects of structural guidance in story retelling on children’s dictation of original stories. Journal of Reading Behavior, 18(2), 135–152.Google Scholar
  20. Morrow, L. M. (1996). Story retelling: A discussion strategy to develop and assess comprehension. In L. B. Gambrell & J. F. Almasi (eds.), Lively discussions: Fostering engaged reading (pp. 265–285). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.Google Scholar
  21. Nattinger, J., & DeCarrico, J. (1992). Lexical phrasal and language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Nesselhauf, N. (2005). Collocations in a learner corpus. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Partington, A. (1998). Patterns and meanings — using corpora for English language research and teaching. Ameterdam: John BenjaminsCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pawley, A., & Syder, F. H. (1983). Two puzzles for linguistic theory: NativelikeGoogle Scholar
  25. selection and nativelike fluency. In J. C. Richards and R. W. Schmidt (eds.), Language and communication (pp. 191–226). New York: Longman.Google Scholar
  26. Peters, A. M. (1983). Units of language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Scheinkman, N. (2004). Picturing a story. Teaching Pre K-8, 34(6), 58–59.Google Scholar
  28. Schmitt, N. (ed.) (2004). Formulaic sequences: Acquisition, processing and use. Amsterdam: John BenjaminsGoogle Scholar
  29. Schmitt, N., & Carter, R. (2004). Formulaic sequences in action — an introduction. In N. Schmitt (ed.), Formulaic sequences acquisition, processing, and use (pp. 1–22). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Skehan, P. (1996). A framework for the implementation of task-based instruction. Applied Linguistics, 17(1), 38–62. Skehan, P. (1998). A cognitive approach to language learning. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press.Google Scholar
  31. Tomasello, M. (2003). Constructing a language: A usage-based theory of language acquisition. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Van Pattern, B. (1990). Attending to content and form in the input experiment in consciousness. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 12(3), 287–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Vihman, M. M. (1982). A note on children’s lexical representations. Journal of Child Language, 9(1), 249–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Weinert, R. (1995). The Role of Formulaic Language in Second LanguageGoogle Scholar
  35. Acquisition: A Review. Applied Linguistics, 16(2), 181–205.Google Scholar
  36. Wei, N. [卫乃兴] (2007). Phraseological characteristics of Chinese learners’ spoken English: Evidence of lexical chunks from COLSEC [中国学生英语口语的短语学特征研究 — COLSEC 语料库的词块证据分析]. Modern Foreign Languages [现代外语], 30(3), 280–291.Google Scholar
  37. Widdowson, H. G. (1990). Aspects of language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Willis, D. (1990). The lexical syllabus: A new approach to language teaching. London: Collins COBUILD.Google Scholar
  39. Wray, A. (1999) Formulaic language in learners and native speakers. Language Teaching, 32(4), 213–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wray, A. (2000). Formulaic sequences in second language teaching: Principle and practice. Applied Linguistics, 21(4), 463–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wray, A. (2002). Formulaic language and the lexicon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yorio, C. A. (1980). Conventionalized language forms and the development of communicative competence. TESOL Quarterly, 14(4), 433–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Lei Wang and Chan Chen 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lei Wang
  • Chan Chen

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations