• Jan A. G. M. van Dijk
  • Alexander J. A. M. van Deursen
Part of the Palgrave Macmillan’s Digital Education and Learning book series (DEAL)


In the first decade of the twenty-first century, the attention given to the so- called digital divide in developed countries gradually decreased. The common opinion among policy makers and the public at large was that the divide between those with access to computers, the Internet, and other digital media and those without access was closing. In some countries, 90 percent of households were connected to the Internet. Computers, mobile telephony, digital televisions, and many other digital media decreased in price daily while their capacity multiplied. On a massive scale, these media were introduced in all aspects of everyday life. Several applications appeared to be so easy to use that practically every individual with the ability to read and write could use them.


Communication Skill Social Networking Site Operational Skill Digital Medium Digital Divide 
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Further Reading

  1. Van Dijk, J. A. G. M. (2005). The deepening divide: Inequality in the information society. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  2. Conceptual background of digital skills and explores how these skills are related to new media use and society.Google Scholar
  3. Potter, W. J. (2012). Media Literacy (Sixth Edition). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  4. A broader concept of literacy by focusing on traditional media and normative accounts (critical insights of media contents and societal practices).Google Scholar
  5. Potter, W. J. (2004). Theory of Media Literacy: A Cognitive Approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. A more narrow approach by focusing on media knowledge instead of media practice or use.Google Scholar
  7. Livingstone, S., Van Couvering, E., & Thumim, N. (2008). Converging traditions of research on media and information literacies: Disciplinary, critical and methodological issues. In D. J. Leu, J. Coiro, M. Knobel, & C. Lankshear (Eds.), Handbook of research on new literacies (pp. 103–132). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  8. Conceptual and research issues of the differences and similarities of media literacies and information or digital literacies.Google Scholar
  9. Lankshear, C., & Knobel, M. (2008). Digital Literacies: Concepts, Policies and Practices. New York; Washington, DC: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  10. Collection of several diverging essays about issues related to digital literacies.Google Scholar
  11. Mizrach, S. (1998). From orality to teleliteracy. Available at:
  12. An overview of media skills in history.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Jan A. G. M. van Dijk and Alexander J. A. M. van Deursen 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jan A. G. M. van Dijk
  • Alexander J. A. M. van Deursen

There are no affiliations available

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