The analysis of the conditions under which consociational parties emerge and function has highlighted the special nature of intra-party consociationalism. The favourable factors that are commonly used to assess the prospects of consociationalism in a country are of little help in explaining the emergence of consociational parties as a particular type of consociationalism. Instead, the electoral system, colonial legacy, and regime type were identified as key factors. Together they help explain why representation and accommodation in Malaysia, Fiji, India, Canada, Kenya, and Yugoslavia take place within one party instead of among parties representing their own socio-cultural groups. The examination of the institutional context in which consociational parties operate revealed their symbiosis with majoritarian institutions. Whereas interparty consociationalism is associated with the institutions of consensus democracy, intraparty consociationalism was found to co-exist with and draw strength from majoritarian institutions. The previous chapter therefore confirmed the hypothesis that, as dominant parties, consociational parties benefit from majoritarian institutions, making representation more inclusive and accommodation more far-reaching and effective.


Electoral System Grand Coalition Central Bank Independence Liberal Party Congress Party 
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Copyright information

© Matthijs Bogaards 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Jacobs University BremenGermany

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