London 2012: The Women’s Games? Examining the Photographic Evidence
- 111 Downloads
The 2012 Olympic Games were widely reported as the “Women’s Games”, but was this reflected in the photographic representation in British print media? Content analysis was used to compare the amount and prominence of the coverage devoted to female and male athletes and photographs during the Games. Findings indicated that media coverage of female athletes continued to lag behind that of male athletes in quantity of photos. However, there were signs of increased gender equality in the location, page prominence and camera angle of photos of sportswomen compared to previous studies on the media representation of female athletes at past Olympic Games.
KeywordsFemale Athlete Olympic Game Male Athlete Front Page Camera Angle
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Bernstein, A. (2002) Is it Time for a Victory Lap? Changes in the Media Coverage of Women in Sport. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 37 (3-4), 415–428.Google Scholar
- Boyle, R. and Haynes, R. (2000) Power Play: Sport, the Media, and Popular Culture. Harlow, Pearson Education.Google Scholar
- Boyle, R. and Haynes, R. (2009) Power Play: Sport, the Media, and Popular Culture (2nd edition). Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
- British Olympic Association (2012) London 2012 Athletes by Sport. Team GB-Official Homes of the British Olympic Association, http://www.teamgb.com/2012athletes (home page), date accessed 13 January 2013.
- Capranica, L., Minganti, C., Billat, V., Hanghoj, S., Piacentini, M.F., Cumps, E. and Meeusen, R. (2005) Newspaper Coverage of Women’s Sports During the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games: Belgium, Denmark, France and Italy. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 76(2), 3–223.Google Scholar
- Cashmore, E. (2002) Beckham. Cambridge, Polity Press.Google Scholar
- Coakley, J. and Pike, E. (2009) Sports in Society, Issues and Controversies (9th edition). London, McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
- Cohen, G. (1993) Media Portrayal of the Female Athlete. In G. Cohen (ed.) Women in Sport: Issues and Controversies. Newbury Park, CA, Sage, 171–184.Google Scholar
- Crossman, J., Vincent, J. and Speed, H. (2007) The Times they are A-Changin: Gender Comparisons in Three National Newspapers of the 2004 Wimbledon Championships. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 42(1), 3–41.Google Scholar
- Duncan, M. (1990) Sports Photographs and Sexual Differences: Images of Women and Men in the 1984 and 1988 Olympic Games. Sociology of Sport Journal, 7, 22–43.Google Scholar
- Duncan, M. and Messner, M.A. (1998) The Media Image of Sport and Gender. In L.A. Wenner (ed.) MediaSport. London, Routledge, 170–185.Google Scholar
- Eastman, S.T. and Billings, A.C. (1999) Gender Parity in the Olympics: Hyping Women Athletes, Favouring Men Athletes. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 23(2), 3–170.Google Scholar
- Franklin, B. (2008) (ed.) Pulling Newspapers Apart: Analysing Print Journalism. New York, Routledge.Google Scholar
- Hardin, M., Chance, J., Dodd, J.E. and Hardin, B. (2002) Olympic Photo Coverage Fair to Female Athletes. Newspaper Research Journal, 2(3), 3–78.Google Scholar
- Harris, J. and Clayton, B. (2002) Femininity, Masculinity, Physicality, and the English Tabloid Press: The Case of Anna Kournikova. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 37 (3-4), 397–413.Google Scholar
- Jones, R., Murrell, A. and Jackson, J. (1999) Pretty Versus Powerful in the Sports Pages: Print Media Coverage of the US Women’s Olympic Gold Medal Winning Teams. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 23(2), 3–192.Google Scholar
- Kian, E. and Hardin, M. (2009) Framing of Sport Coverage Based on the Sex of Sports Writers: Female Journalists Counter the Traditional Gendering of Media Coverage. International Journal of Sport Communication, 2, 185–204.Google Scholar
- Kinnick, K. (1998) Gender Bias in Newspaper Profiles of 1996 Olympic Athletes: A Content Analysis of Five Major Dailies. Women’s Studies in Communication, 21(2), 3–223.Google Scholar
- Mackay, S. and Dallaire, C. (2009) Campus Newspaper Coverage of Varsity Sports: Getting Closer to Equitable and Sports-Related Representations of Female Athletes? International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 44(1), 3–40.Google Scholar
- Pederson, P. (2002) Examining Equity in Newspaper Photographs: A Content Analysis of the Print Media Photographic Coverage of Interscholastic Athletes. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 37 (3-4), 303–318.Google Scholar
- Pringle, R. and Gordon, S. (1995) A Content Analysis of Western Australian Print Media Coverage of the 1990 Commonwealth Games with Particular Reference to Gender Differences. The ACHPER Healthy Lifestyles Journal, 42, 4–8.Google Scholar
- Rogge, J. (2012) Opening Ceremony Speech. Official Website of the Olympic Movement, 27 July 2012, http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Games_London_2012/London_2012_Opening_ ceremony_Speech_Jacques_Rogge.pdf, date accessed 12 July 2013.
- Rowe, D. (1999) Sport, Culture and Media. Buckingham, Open Court Press.Google Scholar
- Scott-Elliot, R. (2012) London 2012 Olympics: The Women’s Games. The Independent, 26 July 2012, http://www.independent.co.uk/sport/olympics/news/london-2012-olympics-the-womens-games-7976835. html, date accessed 15 July 2013.
- Vincent, J. (2004) Game, Sex, and Match: The Construction of Gender in British Newspaper Coverage of the 2000 Wimbledon Championships. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 21(4), 3–456.Google Scholar
- Vincent, J., Imwold, C., Johnson, J.T. and Massey, C.D. (2003) Newspaper Coverage of Female Athletes Competing in Selected Sports in the Centennial Olympic Games: The More Things Change the More They Stay the Same. Women in Sport & Physical Activity Journal, 12, 1–21.Google Scholar
- Vincent, J., Imwold, C., Masemann, V. and Johnson, J.T. (2002) A Comparison of Selected “Serious” and “Popular” British, Canadian, and United States Newspaper Coverage of Female and Male Athletes Competing in the Centennial Olympic Games: Did Female Athletes Receive Equitable Coverage in the “Games of the Women”? International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 37 (3-4), 319–335.Google Scholar
- Vincent, J., Pederson, P., Whisenant, W. and Massey, D. (2007) Analysing the Print Media Coverage of Professional Tennis Players: British Newspaper Narratives About Female Competitors in the Wimbledon Championships. International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, 2, 281–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wensing, E. and Bruce, T. (2003) Bending the Rules: Media Representations of Gender During an International Sporting Event. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 38(4), 3–396.Google Scholar
- Whannel, G. (2002) Media Sports Stars. London, Routledge.Google Scholar
- Wright, J. and Clarke, G. (1999) Sport, the Media, and the Construction of Compulsory Heterosexuality: A Case Study of Women’s Rugby Union. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 34(3), 3–243.Google Scholar