Advertisement

The Assembly of Captive European Nations: A Transnational Organization and Tool of Anti-Communist Propaganda

  • Martin Nekola
Chapter
Part of the The Palgrave Macmillan Transnational History Series book series (PMSTH)

Abstract

The activities of East European exiles in the United States during the Cold War, for many years a neglected topic, has recently and rightfully become the object of historical and political research. Estimates of the numbers of refugees and exiles continue to vary widely. The exiles included workers as well as the cultural, scientific, intellectual and political elites of Eastern Europe. Many were determined to contribute towards the difficult task of liberating their homelands from communist rule. To do so, they needed to gain the support of governments willing to back their cause, and most importantly to establish a unifying umbrella organization that would give them greater legitimacy and become a worthy partner for Western nations.

Keywords

Foreign Policy ACEN Activity Iron Curtain National Security Council Propaganda Campaign 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    J. Robert Wegs and Robert Ladrech, Europe since 1945: A Concise History (Boston: St Martins, 1996), pp. 38–53.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    See Martin Conway and José Gotovitch (eds), Europe in Exile: European Exile Communities in Britain 1940–45 (Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2001).Google Scholar
  3. See also Volker R. Berghahn, America and the Intellectual Cold Wars in Europe: Shepard Stone between Philanthropy, Academy, and Diplomacy (Princeton University Press, 2001).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    See Bernd Stöver, Die Befreiung vom Kommunismus. Amerikanische Liberation Policy im Kalten Krieg 1947–1991 (Cologne: Böhlau Verlag, 2002).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    John F. Leich, “Great Expectations: The National Councils in Exile 1950–1960”, Polish Review 35 (1990), pp. 183–96.Google Scholar
  6. 7.
    John Radzilowski, “Ethnic Anti-Communism in the United States”, in Ieva Zake (ed.), Anti-Communist Minorities in the U.S. (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009), pp. 1–17.Google Scholar
  7. 8.
    Peter Grose, Operation Rollback: America’s Secret War behind the Iron Curtain (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2000), pp. 11–32.Google Scholar
  8. 9.
    On RFE see Robert Holt, Radio Free Europe (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1958);Google Scholar
  9. A. Ross Johnson, Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty: The CIA Years and Beyond (Washington DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 2010);Google Scholar
  10. Arch Puddington, Broadcasting Freedom: The Cold War Triumph of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2000), pp. 210–13.Google Scholar
  11. On the issue of the control of broadcast content, particularly in relation to Hungary in 1956, see also Anne-Chantal Lepeuple, “Radio Europe libre et le soulèvement hongrois de 1956”, Revue d’histoire moderne et contemporaine 47 (2000), pp. 177–95.Google Scholar
  12. 10.
    Richard H. Cummings, Cold War Radio: The Dangerous History of American Broadcasting in Europe, 1950–1989 (Jefferson: McFarland, 2009), pp. 6–7.Google Scholar
  13. 12.
    See Waldo H. Heinrichs Jr, American Ambassador: Joseph C. Grew and the Development of the United States Diplomatic Tradition (Oxford University Press, 1986);Google Scholar
  14. Wilson D. Miscamble, George F. Kennan and the Making of American Foreign Policy, 1947–1950 (Princeton University Press, 1993), pp. 203–7.Google Scholar
  15. 19.
    See John Gillingham, Coal, Steel and the Rebirth of Europe, 1945–1955 (Cambridge University Press, 2002).Google Scholar
  16. 20.
    Wendy L. Wall, Inventing the “American Way”: The Politics of Consensus from the New Deal to the Civil Rights Movement (Chapel Hill: Oxford University Press, 2008), pp. 241–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. See also Martin J. Medhurst, “Eisenhower and the Crusade for Freedom: The Rhetorical Origins of a Cold War Campaign”, Presidential Studies Quarterly 27 (Fall 1997), pp. 646–61.Google Scholar
  18. 21.
    Sara Diamond, The Road to Dominion: Right-Wing Movements and Political Power in the United States (New York: Guilford Press, 1995), pp. 41–4.Google Scholar
  19. 30.
    See Anna Mazurkiewicz, “The Schism within the Polish Delegation to the Assembly of Captive European Nations 1954–1972”, in A. Walaszek and J. Pezda (eds), Polish Diaspora in America and the Wider World, papers from the meeting of the Polish American Historical Association, Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences, Kraków, June 2010, pp. 73–108.Google Scholar
  20. 31.
    Francis D. Raška, Fighting Communism from Afar: The Council of Free Czechoslovakia (Boulder: East European Monographs, 2008), pp. 168–73.Google Scholar
  21. 32.
    Anna Mazurkiewicz, “‘Niejawna ingerencja rządu w swobodną wymianę poglądów’ — Zgromadzenie Europejskich Narodów Ujarzmionych w zimnowojennej polityce Stanów Zjednoczonych”, in Sławomir Łukasiewicz (ed.), Tajny oręż czy ofiary zimniej wojny? Emigracje polityczne z Europy Środkowej i Wschodniej (Lublin-Warsaw: Institut Pamiec´i Narodowej, 2010), p. 260.Google Scholar
  22. 34.
    Brutus Coste, The Political Premises of Successful Propaganda to Eastern Europe (New York: Mid-European Studies Center, 1950).Google Scholar
  23. See also Brutus Coste, “Propaganda to Eastern Europe”, Public Opinion Quarterly 14.4 (1950–51), pp. 639–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 36.
    Feliks Gadomski, Zgromadzenie Europejskich Narodów Ujarzmionych. Krótki zarys (New York: Polstar, 1995).Google Scholar
  25. 38.
    Ieva Zake, American Latvians: Politics of a Refugee Community (New Jersey: Transaction, 2010), pp. 77–9.Google Scholar
  26. 40.
    Peter Gatrell, Free World? The Campaign to Save the World’s Refugees 1956–1963 (Cambridge University Press, 2011), pp. 32–4.Google Scholar
  27. 43.
    Darren G. Lilleker, Against the Cold War (London: I.B. Tauris, 2005), pp. 109–37.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Martin Nekola 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin Nekola

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations