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The Nordic Trade Union Movement and Transnational Anti-Communist Networks in the Early Cold War

  • Dino Knudsen
Chapter
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Part of the The Palgrave Macmillan Transnational History Series book series (PMSTH)

Abstract

On 7 November 1945, an American arrived in Copenhagen as part of a major tour of the European continent. His name was Irving Brown, and he was visiting Denmark as a representative of the American Federation of Labor (AFL). Brown had been invited by the Danish Federation of Trade Unions (DFTU) and both during his visit and afterwards he formed close partnerships with important officials in the Danish trade union movement.1

Keywords

Trade Union National Organization Trade Secretariat World Federation Social Democrat 
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Notes

  1. 2.
    Niels Jul Nielsen, Mellem storpolitik og værkstedsgulv. Den danske arbejder — før, under og efter Den kolde krig (København: Museum Tusculanums Forlag, 2004), p. 122.Google Scholar
  2. 4.
    Marianne Rostgård, “Efterkrigsopgøret indenfor fagbevægelsen og social-demokratiets økonomiske politik 1945–50”, Historievidenskab 18–19 (1980), pp. 105ff.; Nielsen, Mellem storpolitik og værkstedsgulv, pp. 122, 132ff.Google Scholar
  3. 7.
    This chapter is based on Dino Knudsen: Amerikaniseringen af den danske fagbevægelse. Marshallhjælp, kold krig og transatlantiske forbindelser, 1945–1956 [The Americanisation of the Danish Trade Union Movement. Marshall Aid, Cold War and Transatlantic Relations, 1945–1956] (København: Museum Tusculanums Forlag, 2012). In Denmark, there had previously been no specific research on the topic, while thus far, only one article has been published on the subject in a Swedish context: Klaus Misgeld, “Facklig alliansfrihet? Landsorganisationen i Sverige och fackföreningsinternationalen i börjen av det kalla kriget”, Arbetarhistoria 77–8 (1996).Google Scholar
  4. 8.
    On the particularities of America’s historical development and the labour movement, see Seymour Martin Lipset and Gary Marks, It Didn’t Happen Here: Why Socialism Failed in the United States (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 2000);Google Scholar
  5. Seymour Martin Lipset, American Exceptionalism: A Double-Edged Sword (New York: W.W. Norton & Co, 1996);Google Scholar
  6. Federico Romero, The United States and the European Trade Union Movement, 1944–1951 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992), p. 12.Google Scholar
  7. 11.
    Anthony Carew, Labour under the Marshall Plan: The Politics of Productivity and the Marketing of Management Science (Manchester University Press, 1987), p. 63;Google Scholar
  8. Anthony Carew, “The American Labor Movement in Fizzland: The Free Trade Union Committee and the CIA”, Labor History 39 (1998), p. 2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 12.
    Hugh Wilford, The Mighty Wurlitzer: How the CIA Played America (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008), p. 53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 13.
    Julia Angster, “‘The Finest Labour Network in Europe’: American Labour and the Cold War”, in Helen Laville and Hugh Wilford (eds), The US Government, Citizen Groups and the Cold War: The State-Private Network (New York: Routledge, 2006), p. 102;Google Scholar
  11. Regin Schmidt, PET’s overvågning af arbejdsmarkedet 1945–1989. Fra samarbejde til overvågning — AIC, fagbevægelsen og faglige konflikter under den kolde krig, PET Kommissionens beretning, vol. 8 (København: Justitsministeriet, 2009), pp. 34ff.Google Scholar
  12. 16.
    Ted Morgan, A Covert Life. Jay Lovestone: Communist, Anti-Communist and Spymaster (New York: Random House, 1999), p. 177.Google Scholar
  13. 28.
    “Den nordiske faglige konferense i Oslo 03–04/01/47”, pp. 6ff., Folder 2/3 Box 1061, LO ABA. For more on the convergence, see Ronald L Filippelli, American Labor and Postwar Italy, 1943–1953. A Study of Cold War Politics (Stanford University Press, 1989),Google Scholar
  14. and Jon V. Kofas, “U.S. Foreign Policy and the World Federation of Trade Unions, 1944–48”, Diplomatic History 26 (Winter 2002), pp. 20–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 42.
    Quoted in Gerd Lundestad, Empire by Integration: The United States and European Integration, 1945–1997 (Oxford University Press, 1998), p. 126; Walter Galenson to Department of State, 15 December 1945, 859.504/12–2745, DF 1945–49, RG 59 NA.Google Scholar
  16. 44.
    Romero, p. 94; Carew, p. 61. A classic account of the role of the “labor statesman” can be found in Ronald Radosh, American Labor and United States Foreign Policy (New York: Random House, 1969).Google Scholar
  17. 46.
    Ibid.; see also Wilford, Mighty Wurlitzer, ch. 3, for a summary of the conflict-ridden relationship, and Quenby Hughes, In the Interest of Democracy: The Rise and Fall of the Early Cold War Alliance between the American Federation of Labor and the Central Intelligence Service Agency (Oxford: Peter Lang, 2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

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© Dino Knudsen 2014

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