Advertisement

Transnational Fundamentalist Anti-Communism: The International Council of Christian Churches

  • Markku Ruotsila
Chapter
  • 186 Downloads
Part of the The Palgrave Macmillan Transnational History Series book series (PMSTH)

Abstract

For most of the Cold War, the International Council of Christian Churches (ICCC) was the single largest international organization of self-designated fundamentalist or “Bible-believing” Christian churches and parachurch organizations.1 From its creation in 1948 until the emergence in 1975 of the rival World Congress of Fundamentalists, it was the only one of its kind, the sole worldwide information-sharing, coordinating and collaborative agency of fundamentalist Protestants. With nearly four hundred member denominations (by the mid-1980s) in Western Europe and in the Americas, in Southeast Asia and in sub-Saharan Africa and a claimed membership of 55 million, it maintained offices in Amsterdam in the Netherlands and in Collingswood, New Jersey in the United States. On a semi-annual basis, it held international, national and hemispheric conferences, and it published some 34 periodicals in 16 languages in 89 countries, maintained contact with key political decision-makers on all four continents and fostered an extensive network of informants and collaborators, some behind the Iron Curtain.2

Keywords

International Council Christian Faith Free Enterprise Christian Church Secret Police 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 2.
    ICCC press release, 18 September 1985, Box 212, Carl McIntire Manuscript Collection, Princeton Theological Seminary, New Jersey; Reports and Messages Eight World Congress ICCC Cape May, New Jersey June 13–25, 1973 (Collingswood, NJ: n.p., 1973), pp. 40–3; Jutta Reich, “Twentieth Century Reformation”: Dynamischen Fundamentalismus nach Geschichte und Erscheinung (Marburg/Lahn: N. G. Elwert Verlag 1969), p. 119.Google Scholar
  2. 3.
    For a summary of McIntire’s career, see Markku Ruotsila, “Carl McIntire and the Fundamentalist Origins of the Christian Right”, Church History 81 (June 2012), pp. 378–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 4.
    The organization is not even mentioned in Dianne Kirby (ed.), Religion and the Cold War (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), and mentioned only once or twice, only in passing, in each of the following:Google Scholar
  4. David Foglesong, The American Mission and the “Evil Empire”: The Crusade for a “Free Russia” since 1881 (Cambridge University Press, 2007);Google Scholar
  5. William Inboden, Religion and American Foreign Policy, 1945–1960 (Cambridge University Press, 2008);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Jonathan P. Herzog, The Spiritual-Industrial Complex: America’s Religious Battle against Communism in the Early Cold War (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011);Google Scholar
  7. Jason Stevens, God-Fearing and Free: A Spiritual History of America’s Cold War (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2010).Google Scholar
  8. 6.
    Carl McIntire, Russia’s Most Effective Fifth Column: A Series of Radio Addresses by Carl McIntire (Collingswood, NJ: Christian Beacon Press, 1948).Google Scholar
  9. 7.
    See Harold C. Fey and Stephen Neill (eds), A History of the Ecumenical Movement, vols 2 and 3 (Geneva: WCC, 2004 [1970]).Google Scholar
  10. 15.
    See John Bolt, A Free Church, a Holy Nation: Abraham Kuyper’s American Public Theology (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2001);Google Scholar
  11. James D. Bratt (ed.), Abraham Kuyper: A Centennial Reader (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1998).Google Scholar
  12. 16.
    McIntire, Author of Liberty (Collingswood, NJ: Christian Beacon Press, 1945), pp. 26–7, 38–9;Google Scholar
  13. McIntire, The Rise of the Tyrant: Controlled Economy vs. Private Enterprise (Collingswood, NJ: Christian Beacon Press, 1945), pp. xiii, 12–28, 47–8, 181–7.Google Scholar
  14. 18.
    See A. Warnaar, Jr, “The Welfare State from the Christian Point of View”, Reformation Review 4 (October 1956), pp. 36–44;Google Scholar
  15. Gustaf Beiling, “The Christian’s Responsibility as Citizen”, Reformation Review 3 (July 1956), pp. 233–7.Google Scholar
  16. 21.
    See Markku Ruotsila, The Origins of Christian Anti-Internationalism: Conservative Evangelicals and the League of Nations (Washington DC: Georgetown University Press, 2008), pp. 27–32, 171–80.Google Scholar
  17. 24.
    Hedegård, “Redaktionellt”, För Biblisk Tro 19.4 (1955), pp. 145–7.Google Scholar
  18. 29.
    Barry Hankins, Francis Schaeffer and the Shaping of Evangelical America (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2008), pp. 12–15, 27–37.Google Scholar
  19. 35.
    McIntire, The Battle of Bangkok: Second Missionary Journey (Collingswood, NJ: Christian Beacon Press [1950]), pp. 69–71.Google Scholar
  20. 43.
    See Erling Jorstad, The Politics of Doomsday: Fundamentalists of the Far Right (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1970), pp. 93–6f.Google Scholar
  21. 55.
    McIntire, “Communism: Threat to Freedom”, Christian Beacon (29 March 1962), p. 2; McIntire, The Double Talk of the State Department (Collingswood, NJ: Twentieth Century Reformation Hour, 1965), pp. 1–4; McIntire to “Dear Radio Friend”, 2 April 1969, Box 73, Billy James Hargis papers, Special Collections, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville.Google Scholar
  22. 58.
    The Testimony of the ICCC, pp. 9–10; Billy James Hargis, My Great Mistake (Green Forrest, AR: New Leaf Press, 1985), pp. 49–60; Hargis, “Remembering the 1950s Bible Balloon Launches”, Christian Crusade (September 1998), pp. 15–18.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Markku Ruotsila 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Markku Ruotsila

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations