Advertisement

Introduction: Imperial Sentiment in the British Empire — Themes and Perspectives

  • John Griffiths
Chapter
Part of the Britain and the World book series (BAW)

Abstract

The era 1870–1914 witnessed a significant reconfiguration of the ways in which both Britain regarded its overseas possessions and the way those same territories located within the British Empire regarded it. During the 1870s, in the wake of German and Italian unification, the idea that a more tightly integrated British world could be constructed was voiced. This sentiment had existed well before 1870, but Britain, itself in the midst of economic depression by the mid-1870s, now looked to its colonies as a means of triggering an economic recovery and, by the 1890s, the idea of unity was given further momentum based on defensive considerations in the face of aggressive German militarisation.1 Increasing admiration of the federal project accomplished in the USA, Canada, Germany and Switzerland also played a significant role in leading some intellectuals to suggest closer political ties between Britain and its far-flung Empire. Indeed, historians have detected a new interest in the Empire emerging in the 1860s, pointing to the formation of the Royal Colonial Institute as early evidence of this rejuvenation, as was the increasing adoption of the term ‘Greater Britain’, used, for example, in the works of Charles Dilke and J.R. Seeley.2 It was initially a Greater Britain which included the USA as an ‘English speaking people’, but the latter was subsequently excluded from later discourse concerning ‘Britishness’. Thus, whereas Dilke integrated the USA in his narrative published in the 1860s, J.R. Seeley, in his bestselling The Expansion of England, published in 1883, placed discussion of the USA in a chapter entitled ‘Schism in Greater Britain’ and noted that: ‘The American Revolution called into existence a new state, a state inheriting the language and traditions of England, but taking in some respects a line of its own.’3

Keywords

Imperial Culture Preferential Tariff Urban Culture Imperial Idea Mother Country 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    S.J. Potter in his News and the British World: The Emergence of an Imperial Press System 1876–1922 (Oxford University Press, 2003), p. 2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    C. Dilke, Greater Britain (London: Macmillan, 1869)Google Scholar
  3. J.R. Seeley, The Expansion of England (London: Macmillan, 1883).Google Scholar
  4. 5.
    J.M. MacKenzie’s Propaganda and Empire: The Manipulation of British Public Opinion 1880–1960 (Manchester University Press, 1984), pp. 147–72.Google Scholar
  5. 6.
    K.S. Inglis, ‘The Imperial Connection: Telegraphic Communication between England and Australia 1872–1902’ in A.F. Madden and W.H. Morris-Jones (eds), Australia and Britain (Sydney University Press, 1980)Google Scholar
  6. B. Fitzpatrick, The British Empire in Australia: An Economic History (Melbourne University Press, 1949), p. 19.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    J.E. Tyler, The Struggle for Imperial Unity 1868–1895 (London: Longmans, 1938), p. 10.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    W.P. Morrell, Britain and New Zealand (London: Longmans, 1944), p. 33.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    P. Mein-Smith, A Concise History of New Zealand (Melbourne: Cambridge University Press, 2005), pp. 142–3.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. Macintyre, The Oxford History of Australia Volume 4: 1901–42, The Succeeding Age (Oxford University Press, 1986), p. 126.Google Scholar
  11. 13.
    M. Dunn, Australia and the Empire: From 1788 to the Present (Sydney: Fontana, 1984), p. 63.Google Scholar
  12. 14.
    J. Bridgen, The Australian Tariff: An Economic Inquiry (Melbourne University Press, 1929), pp. 148–9.Google Scholar
  13. 15.
    B. Pinkstone and D. Meredith, Global Connections: A History of Exports and the Australian Economy (Canberra: AGPS, 1992), p. 102.Google Scholar
  14. 18.
    J. Eddy and D. Schreuder (eds), The Rise of Colonial Nationalism: Australia, New Zealand, Canada and South Africa First Assert their Nationalities 1880–1914 (Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 1988).Google Scholar
  15. 20.
    C. Blackton, ‘Australian Nationality and Nationalism, 1850–1900’, Historical Studies, Australia & New Zealand, 9 (1961), p. 354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 27.
    E.J. Von Dadelszen, Report on the Results of a Census of the Colony of New Zealand Taken for the Night of 5th April 1891 (Wellington: Government Printers, 1891), p. 109.Google Scholar
  17. 28.
    B. Kingston, Glad, Confident Morning Vol. 3. Oxford History of Australia 1860–1900 (Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1993), p. 85Google Scholar
  18. 29.
    H. Jackson, ‘The Later Victorian Decline in Churchgoing: Some New Zealand Evidence’, Archives de Sciences Sociales des Religions, 56(1) (1983), p. 100.Google Scholar
  19. 30.
    M. McKernan, Australian Churches at War: Attitudes and Activities of the Major Churches 1914–1918 (Canberra: Australian War Memorial, 1980), Chapter 6.Google Scholar
  20. 32.
    L. Frost, The New Urban Frontier: Urbanisation and City Building in Australasia and the American West (Sydney: New South Wales University Press, 1991).Google Scholar
  21. 34.
    R. Trainor, Black Country Elites: The Exercise of Authority in an Industrialized Area, 1830–1900 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993), p. 18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 36.
    A. Brown-May and S. Swain (eds), Encyclopedia of Melbourne (Cambridge University Press, 2005), p. 459.Google Scholar
  23. 38.
    Job Ham, see I. McLaren, ‘Job Ham, Cornelius (1837–1909)’ in ADB, Vol. 4 1851–1890 (Melbourne University Press, 1972), pp. 328–9.Google Scholar
  24. H. Rosenbloom, ‘Downes Carter, Godfrey (1830–1902)’ in ADB, Vol. 3, 1851–1890 (Melbourne University Press, 1969), p. 363.Google Scholar
  25. 40.
    J.A. Hone, ‘Lang, Matthew (1830–1893)’ in ADB, Vol. 5, 1851–1890 (Melbourne University Press, 1974), p. 59Google Scholar
  26. B. Barrett, ‘Snowden, Sir Arthur (1829–1918)’ in ADB, Vol. 12, 1891–1939 (Melbourne University Press, 1990), pp. 8–9.Google Scholar
  27. 41.
    D. Dunstan, ‘McEacharn, Sir Malcolm (1852–1910)’ in ADB, Vol. 9,1891–1939 (Melbourne University Press, 1986), pp. 263–4.Google Scholar
  28. 43.
    D. Dunstan, ‘Cabena, William (1853–1928)’ in ADB, Vol. 7, 1891–1939 (Melbourne University Press, 1979), p. 521.Google Scholar
  29. 45.
    D. Cannadine, Ornamentalism: How the British Saw their Empire (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 2002), pp. 27–40.Google Scholar
  30. D. McCaughey, N. Perkins and A. Trumble, Victoria’s Colonial Governors 1839–1900 (Melbourne University Press, 1990)Google Scholar
  31. G. McLean, The Governors: New Zealand’s Governors and Governors-General (Otago University Press, 2006).Google Scholar
  32. 47.
    W.H. Scotter, A History of Canterbury, Vol. III (Christchurch: Whitcombe and Tombs, 1957–71), pp. 45–6Google Scholar
  33. G. Bush, Decently and in Order: The Centennial History of Auckland City Council (Auckland: Collins, 1971), pp. 178–80.Google Scholar
  34. 48.
    J.A. Froude, Oceana, or England and Her Colonies (London: Longmans, 1886), p. 137.Google Scholar
  35. 52.
    C. Dilke, Problems of Greater Britain (London: Macmillan, 1890), p. vii.Google Scholar
  36. 62.
    J.B. Miller, ‘Jebb, Richard. (1874–1953)’ in H.C.G. Matthew and B. Harrison (eds), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, vol. 29 (Oxford University Press, 2004)Google Scholar
  37. J.D.B. Miller, Richard Jebb and the Problem of Empire (London: Athlone Press, 1956)Google Scholar
  38. D. Gorman, Imperial Citizenship: Empire and the Question of Belonging (Manchester University Press, 2006).Google Scholar
  39. 66.
    G. Martin, ‘Empire Federalism and Imperial Parliamentary Union 1820–1870’, Historical Journal, 16(1) (1973), p. 90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. G. Blainey, A History of Victoria (Melbourne: Cambridge University Press, 2006), p. 152.Google Scholar
  41. 69.
    S. Macintyre, ‘Australia’ in R.W. Winks and A. Low (eds), The Oxford History of the British Empire, Vol. V, Historiography (Oxford University Press, 1999), p. 180.Google Scholar
  42. 75.
    D. Cole, ‘The Crimson Thread of Kinship: Ethnic Ideas in Australia 1870–1914’, Historical Studies, 14 (1971), pp. 511–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 76.
    D. Cole, ‘The Problems of Nationalism and Imperialism in British Settlement Colonies’, Journal of British Studies, 10(2) (1971), pp. 160–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 77.
    F.K. Crowley, ‘1901–1914’ in F.K. Crowley (ed.), A New History of Australia (Melbourne: Heinemann, 1974), p. 178.Google Scholar
  45. 78.
    C. Grimshaw, ‘Australian Nationalism and the Imperial Connection 19001914’, Australian Journal of Politics and History, 3(2) (1958), p. 161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 79.
    C. Berger, The Sense of Power: Studies in the Ideas of Canadian Imperialism 1867–1914 (Toronto University Press, 1970), p. 9.Google Scholar
  47. 83.
    N. Meaney, ‘Britishness and Australian Identity: The Problem of Nationalism in Australian History and Historiography’, Australian Historical Studies, 32 (2008), p. 79.Google Scholar
  48. S. Alomes, A Nation at Last? The Changing Character of Australian Nationalism (Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 1988)Google Scholar
  49. R. Burrell, A Nation of Our Own: Citizenship and Nation-Building in Federation Australia (Melbourne: Longman, 1995)Google Scholar
  50. D. Day, The Reluctant Nation (Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1992).Google Scholar
  51. 85.
    W.P. Morrell, New Zealand (London: Ernest Benn, 1935), p. 112Google Scholar
  52. 86.
    Keith Sinclair, Imperial Federation: A Study of New Zealand Policy and Opinion 1880–1914 (London: Athlone Press, 1955), p. 24.Google Scholar
  53. 87.
    Keith Sinclair, A Destiny Apart (Wellington: Allen & Unwin, 1986), pp. 125–42Google Scholar
  54. 89.
    J. Belich, Paradise Reforged: A History of the New Zealanders from the 1880s to the Year 2000 (Auckland: Penguin, 2001).Google Scholar
  55. 90.
    F. Driver and D. Gilbert (eds), Imperial Cities: Landscape, Display and Identity (Manchester University Press, 1999), p. 4.Google Scholar
  56. 92.
    J. Richards, Film and British National Identity: From Dickens to Dad’s Army (Manchester University Press, 1997)Google Scholar
  57. C. Hall and S. Rose, ‘Introduction’ in C. Hall and S. Rose (eds), At Home with the Empire: Metropolitan Culture and the Imperial World (Cambridge University Press, 2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. C. Hall, ‘Culture and Identity in Imperial Britain’ in S. Stockwell (ed.), The British Empire: Themes and Perspectives (Oxford: Blackwell, 2008).Google Scholar
  59. 93.
    B. Porter, The Absent-Minded Imperialists: Empire, Society and Culture in Britain (Oxford University Press, 2004), pp. 115 and 307.Google Scholar
  60. 94.
    A.S. Thompson, The Empire Strikes Back? The Impact of Imperialism on Britain from the Mid-Nineteenth Century (Harlow: Longman, 2004).Google Scholar
  61. 95.
    J.M. MacKenzie’s review of The Absent-Minded Imperialists in Round Table, 94(379) (2005)Google Scholar
  62. 96.
    See Porter’s subsequent musings in ‘Further Thoughts on Imperial Absent Mindedness’, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 36(1) (2008), pp. 101–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 97.
    Macintyre, ‘Australia’, p. 175. See also the introduction to K. Darian-Smith, P. Grimshaw and S. Macintyre, Britishness Abroad: Transnational Movements and Imperial Cultures (Melbourne University Press, 2007), pp. 1–15.Google Scholar
  64. 98.
    E. Said, Orientalism (New York: Pantheon, 1978).Google Scholar
  65. P. Edmonds, Urbanizing Frontiers: Indigenous Peoples and Settlers in 19th Century Pacific Rim Cities (Toronto: UBC Press, 2010)Google Scholar
  66. L. Russell (ed.), Colonial Frontiers: Indigenous-European Encounters in Settler Societies (Manchester University Press, 2001)Google Scholar
  67. J. Evans, P. Grimshaw, D, Philips and S. Swain, Equal Subjects, Unequal Rights: Indigenous Peoples in British Settler Colonies 1830–1910 (Manchester University Press, 2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© John Griffiths 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Griffiths
    • 1
  1. 1.School of HumanitiesMassey UniversityNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations