the process whereby the rules and procedures of citisenship are either applied to political institutions previously governed by other principles (e.g. coercive control, social tradition, expert judgement or administrative practice), or expanded to include persons not previously enjoying such rights and obligations (e.g. nontaxpayers, illiterates, women, youth, ethnic minorities, foreign residents) or extended to cover issues and institutions not previously subject to citizen participation (e.g. state agencies, military establishments, partisan organizations, interests associations, productive enterprises, educational institutions, etc.). (1986, p. 8)
KeywordsCivil Society Liberal Democracy Civil Society Organisation Public Affair Land Reform
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