This identifies three main conclusions from the book. First that not only modern print culture, but also oral and manuscript transmission could sustain supernatural beliefs, especially among the semi-educated middling sort, as well as clergy who sought to influence this group. Second that the Perks story contained an inbuilt tension, acting not only as a warning-lesson to humans about demonic spirits, but also as an inspiration regarding the potential of communication with spirits, each reflecting an important aspect of Protestant religious culture. Finally, that this culture depended on biblical providentialism, without which the Perks story lost its meaning.


providentialism supernatural communication with spirits demonology print and oral culture education 


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© Jonathan Barry 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jonathan Barry
    • 1
  1. 1.University of ExeterUK

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