Scandinavian Cooperative Advantage: The Case of IKEA

  • Robert Strand
Part of the Humanism in Business Series book series (HUBUS)


I recently co-authored an article with stakeholder theorist R. Edward Freeman in which we introduce the concept of ‘Scandinavian cooperative advantage’ to the field of strategic management (Strand and Freeman, forthcoming). Scandinavian cooperative advantage refers to the general tendency of companies in a Scandinavian context to implement a value creating strategy based on cooperating with their stakeholders that results in superior value creation. Unlike with the concept of competitive advantage (Porter 1980, 1985) that emphasizes competition between stakeholders, a fundamental component of achieving a cooperative advantage is the adoption of a ‘cooperative strategic posture’ in which a company’s stakeholders are initially considered as potential cooperation partners with whom to create value.


Corporate Social Responsibility Supply Chain Business Ethic Strategic Management Child Labour 
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© Robert Strand 2013

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  • Robert Strand

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