Conclusion: Why Study the Dark Side?



Since the 1980s football has been transformed by a combination of the media, foreign investment and the redevelopment of its infrastructure. These changes have enabled football to become a global spectacle that is consumed by billions of people from diverse nationalities, religions, genders and ethnicities. In England, the gentrification of football has moved the sport away from its working class origins to family entertainment. This tends to disguise the less salubrious facets of the sport. This chapter draws together the data gathered from several research projects involving over 10,000 participants to issue statements on the condition of football and its future.


Dark Side European Competition Premier League Global Spectacle Black Player 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Ellis Cashmore and Jamie Cleland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Staffordshire UniversityUK
  2. 2.Loughborough UniversityUK

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