Nicaragua: Deprivatizing Education, the Citizen Power Development Model and the Construction of Socialism in the Twenty-First Century

  • Thomas Muhr
Part of the Marxism and Education book series (MAED)


Indeed, we may be witnessing not the terminal decay of Socialism,” remarked Joel Samoff in response to the general greeting of the decline of socialism in the late twentieth century, “but the struggles of its rebirth” (Samoff, 1991, p. 1). While Samoff pointed to the Polish workers at the time to potentially take on a lead role in this effort, history has once more put Latin America and the Caribbean—in José Martí’s decolonialist terms, Our America—into the spotlight of resistance to capitalism. These transformations are advanced and promoted through the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America—Peoples’ Trade Agreement (Alianza Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra América—Tratado de Comercio de los Pueblos, ALBA-TCP), which I have theorized as a pluriscalar counter-hegemonic war of position that seeks the construction of socialism: a set of processes in which the local and national become dialectically interrelated with the regional and global, and with the notion of “revolutionary democracy” at the core.1


Human Development Index United Nations Development Programme Direct Democracy Food Sovereignty Caribbean Country 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Arnove, R. F. (1986), Education and Revolution in Nicaragua, New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  2. — (1994), Education as Contested Terrain in Nicaragua, Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  3. Barndt, D. (1985), “Popular Education,” in Walker, T. W. (ed.), Nicaragua: The First Five Years, New York: Praeger, pp. 317–345.Google Scholar
  4. Cox, R. W. (1981), “Social Forces, States and World Order: Beyond International Relations Theory,” Millennium: Journal of International Studies 10(2): pp. 126–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Fägerlind, I. and Saha, L. J. (1989), Education and National Development (2d edition), Oxford: Butterworth.Google Scholar
  6. FAO (2009), The State of Food Insecurity in the World, Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
  7. Federación Luterana Mundial (2006), Centroamérica 2004–2005. Desde una Perspectiva de Derechos Humanos, Managua: FLM.Google Scholar
  8. FEDH-IPN (Foro de Educación y Desarrollo Humano de la Iniciativa Por Nicaragua), IPADE ( Instituto para el Desarrollo y la Democracia)/CEAAL Nicaragua (Consejo de Educación de Adultos de América Latina), Plan Nicaragua (2007), Consulta del Nuevo Curriculum de Educación Básica y Media. Aspectos Fundamentales de Consulta, Managua: FEDH-IPN/ IPADE/CEAAL/Plan Nicaragua.Google Scholar
  9. FIDEG (Fundación Internacional para el Desafío Económico Global) (2010), Encuesta de Hogares para la Medición de la Pobreza en Nicaragua, (accessed November 9, 2010).Google Scholar
  10. GRUN (Gobierno de Reconciliación y Unidad Nacional) (2008a), Plan Nacional de Desarrollo Humano 2008–2012. Documento Borrador 0 — Para Discusión, Managua: GRUN.Google Scholar
  11. — (2008b), Informe de País, CONFINTEA VI 2008, Managua: MINED.Google Scholar
  12. — (2009a), Plan Nacional de Desarrollo Humano Actualizado 2009 2011, Managua: GRUN.Google Scholar
  13. — (2009b), Plan de Acción del Poder Ciudadano. Hacia la Restitución de Derechos del Pueblo, Managua: GRUN.Google Scholar
  14. — (2010a), Informe Anual del Presidente de la República 2009, Managua: GRUN.Google Scholar
  15. — (2010b), Estrategia Nacional Ambiental y del Cambio Climático. Plan de Acción 2010–2015, Managua: GRUN.Google Scholar
  16. — (2011), Nicaragua Triunfa, 44, September 21, 2011, Scholar
  17. Hoyt, K. (1997), The Many Faces of Sandinista Democracy, Athens: Ohio University Press.Google Scholar
  18. La Lucha Sigue (2011), Avances Sandinistas II Etapa de la Revolución 2007–2010, December 11, 2010, Scholar
  19. Macpherson, C. B. (1977), The Life andTimes of Liberal Democracy, Oxtord: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Marx, K. (1942[1871]), “The Civil War in France,” in Marx, K., Selected Works, Vol. 2, London: Lawrence and Wishart, pp. 446–527.Google Scholar
  21. MED (Ministerio de Educación) (1982), La Educación en Tres Años de Revolución, Managua: MED.Google Scholar
  22. MECD (Ministerio de Educación, Cultura Deportes) (2005), Plan Operativo Anual 2005, Managua: MECD.Google Scholar
  23. MINED (Ministerio de Educación) (2008), La Revolución Participativa de la Educación Nicaragüense: El Caso de la Gran Consulta del Currículo para la Educación General Básica y Media (2007–2008), Managua: MINED.Google Scholar
  24. — (2009), Informe Final. Campana Nacional de Alfabetización “De Martí a Fidel,” Managua: MINED.Google Scholar
  25. Muhr, T. (2008a), “Nicaragua Re-Visited: From Neoliberal ‘Ungovernability’ to the Bolivarian Alternative for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA),” Globalisation, Societies and Education 6(2): pp. 147–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. — (2008b), “Venezuela: Global Counter-Hegemony, Geographies of Regional Development, and Higher Education for All,” PhD thesis, University of Bristol, Scholar
  27. — (2010a), “Nicaragua: Constructing the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA),” in Schuerkens, U. (ed.), Globalization and Social Inequality, New York: Routledge, pp. 115–134.Google Scholar
  28. — (2010b), “Counter-Hegemonic Regionalism and Higher Education for All: Venezuela and the ALBA,” Globalisation, Societies and Education 8(1): pp. 39–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. — (2011a), Venezuela and the ALBA: Counter-Hegemony, Geographies of Integration and Development, and Higher Education forAll, Saarbrücken: VDM.Google Scholar
  30. — (2011b), “Conceptualising the ALBA-TCP: Third Generation Regionalism and Political Economy,” International Journal of Cuban Studies 3(2/3): pp. 98–115.Google Scholar
  31. — (2012), “(Re)constructing Popular Power in Our America: Venezuela and the Regionalisation of ‘Revolutionary Democracy’ in the ALBA-TCP Space,” Third World Quarterly 33(3): pp. 225–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. — (2013), “The Enigma of Socialism,” in Muhr, T. (ed.), Counter-Globalization and Socialism in the 21st Century: The Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America, London: Routledge, pp. 1–29.Google Scholar
  33. Muhr, T. and Verger, A. (2006), “Venezuela: Higher Education for All,” The Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies 4(1),”&articlelD=63.
  34. Ortega, D. (2008), “Daniel Instala el CONPES. Intervención de Daniel en Reunión con el Consejo Nacional de Planificación Económica y Social, CONPES, presentando el Plan Nacional de Desarrollo Humano,” October 15, 2008,–10–15/daniel-instala-el-conpes/.Google Scholar
  35. PREAL (Programa de Promoción de la Reforma Educativa en América Latina y el Caribe) (2004), Informe de Progreso Educativo en Nicaragua, Managua: PREAL.Google Scholar
  36. RN (Repüblica de Nicaragua) (2003), “Ley de Participación Ciudadana,” La Gaceta, 241, December 19, 2003.Google Scholar
  37. — (2007a), “Decreto 113–2007,” La Gaceta, 230, November 29, 2007.Google Scholar
  38. — (2007b), “Decreto 114–2007,” La Gaceta, 236, December 7, 2007.Google Scholar
  39. — (2010), “Constitución Política,” La Gaceta, 176, September 16, 2010.Google Scholar
  40. Rosset, P. and Vandermeer, J. (eds.) (1986), Nicaragua: Unfinished Revolution. The New Nicaragua Reader, New York: Grove Press.Google Scholar
  41. Samoff, J. (1991), “Socialist Education?” Comparative Education Review 35(1): pp. 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Slater, D. (1986), “Socialism, Democracy and the Territorial Imperative: Elements for a Comparison of the Cuban and Nicaraguan Experiences,” Antipode 18(2): pp. 155–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Stuart Almendárez, R. (2009), Consejos del Poder Ciudadano y Gestión Pública en Nicaragua, Managua: CEAP.Google Scholar
  44. UN (2010), Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food, Olivier De Schutter, Addendum, Mission to Nicaragua, Human Rights Council, thirteenth session, Agenda item 3, Scholar
  45. UNDP (1990), Human Development Report1990, New York: UNDP.Google Scholar
  46. — (2008), Human Development Indices: A Statistical Update, (accessed April 26, 2008).Google Scholar
  47. — (2011), Informe Nacional sobre Desarrollo Humano 2011. Las Juventudes Construyendo Nicaragua, Managua: PNUD Nicaragua.Google Scholar
  48. UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization), OEI (Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos), INIDE (Instituto Nacional de Información de Desarrollo), UNAN-Managua (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Nicaragua), IDEUCA (Instituto de Educación de la Universidad Centro-Americana) (2009), Informe. Comisión Nacional de Verificación: Verificación de la Tasa Nacional de Analfabetismo en Nicaragua 16/06/2009, Managua: UNESCO-Managua/OEI/INIDE/UNAN/IDEUCA.Google Scholar
  49. World Bank (2008), Nicaragua Poverty Assessment, Vol. 1, Main Report, 39736-NI, Washington D.C.: World Bank.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Sara C. Motta and Mike Cole 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Muhr

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations