Which Education for Which Democracy?: The Case of the Penguins’ Revolution in Chile

  • Ivette Hernandez Santibañez
Part of the Marxism and Education book series (MAED)


In October 2011, I joined a student march called by the Confederation of Chilean Students (CONFECH), the Coordinating Assembly of Secondary Students (ACES) and the National Coordinating Committee of Secondary Students (CONES) in a street near the Alameda Avenue in the city of Santiago de Chile. While marching I encountered an old man holding a small banner with two little penguins drawn on it. I asked him why he held a banner with this drawing. He replied that what Chile witnessed in 2011 had been a process that secondary students, called the Penguins because of their school uniform, had begun in 2006 when they demanded education is a right and not a privilege.


Social Movement Metropolitan Region Secondary Student Direct Democracy Political Subjectivity 
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© Sara C. Motta and Mike Cole 2013

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  • Ivette Hernandez Santibañez

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