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Introduction

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Abstract

Educational upward mobility is not the American Dream plus IQ. It requires more than individual effort and intelligence, and sometimes completely different ingredients, such as specific social and societal conditions. It is still exceptional; most people from working-class families and lower socioeconomic backgrounds do not enter higher education. The topic is tricky because success depends on social structures, on the one hand, without being a mass phenomenon, on the other.

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© Antonia Kupfer 2015

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