The Expression and Perception of the Duchenne Smile

  • Sarah D. Gunnery
  • Judith A. Hall


The smile, as a nonverbal behavior, can be a quite confusing expression. People smile for many reasons and when experiencing many different emotions including embarrassment, anger, jealousy, and distress along with many kinds of positive affect (Ekman & Friesen, 1982; Keltner, 1995; Ansfield, 2007; Ambadar et al., 2009). Although people smile when they are feeling a range of different emotions, the smile is largely synonymous with happiness, and people are very good at perceiving when another person is feeling happy rather than one of the other emotions listed above.


Facial Expression Positive Affect Nonverbal Behavior Neutral Expression Perception Study 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Sarah D. Gunnery and Judith A. Hall 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sarah D. Gunnery
  • Judith A. Hall

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