Advertisement

The Impact of Nonverbal Behavior in the Job Interview

  • Denise Frauendorfer
  • Marianne Schmid Mast
Chapter

Abstract

In human resources, employee selection plays a major role. Given that an organization functions only with its members, the selection of a member who contributes the most and best to the productivity is aspired to (Guion & Highhouse, 2006). Thus, the selection has a powerful impact on the company’s outcome, going both ways: as much as a good selection can have a positive impact, a bad selection can have a negative impact on the company.

Keywords

Nonverbal Behavior Impression Management Female Applicant Personnel Psychology Impression Management Tactic 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ambady, N., Hallahan, M., & Rosenthal, R. (1995). On judging and being judged accurately in zero acquaintance situations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 518–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ambady, N., & Rosenthal, R. (1992). Thin slices of expressive behavior as predictors of interpersonal consequences: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 256–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ambady, N., & Rosenthal, R. (1993). Half a minute: Predicting teacher evaluations from thin slices of nonverbal behavior and physical attractiveness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3, 431–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson, N. R. (1991). Decision making in the graduate selection interview: An experimental investigation. Human Relations, 44, 403–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson, N. R., & Shackleton, V. J. (1990). Decision making in the graduate selection interview: A field study. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 63–76. doi: 10.1111/j.2044–8325.1990.tb00510.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arvey, R. D., & Campion, J. E. (1982). The employment interview: A summary and review of recent research. Personnel Psychology, 35, 281–322. doi: 10.1111/j.1744–6570.1982.tb02197.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ayres, J., Keereetaweep, T., Chen, P.-E., & Edwards, P. A. (1998). Communication apprehension and employment interviews. Communication Education, 14, 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ba, S., & Odobez, J.-M. (2011). Multiperson visual focus of attention from head pose and meeting contextual cues. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 3, 101–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barrick, M. R., & Mount, M. K. (1991). The Big Five personality dimensions and job performance: A aeta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 44(1), 1–26. doi: 10.1111/j.1744–6570.1991.tb00688.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barrick, M. R., Patton, G. K., & Haugland, S. N. (2000). Accuracy of interview judgments of job applicant personality traits. Personnel Psychology, 53(4), 925–951. doi: 10.1111/j.1744–6570.2000.tb02424.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barrick, M. R., Shaffer, J. A., & DeGrassi, S. W. (2009). What you see may not be what you get: Relationships among self-presentations tactics and ratings of interview and job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 1394–1411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Basu, S. (2002). Conversational scene analysis. Cambridge, MA: MIT Department of EECS. Retrieved from http://alumni.media.mit.edu/~sbasu/papers.htmlGoogle Scholar
  13. Biel, J.-I., Aran, O., & Gatica-Perez, D. (2011, July). You are known by how you vlog: Personality impressions and nonverbal behavior in YouTube. Paper presented at the Proc. Int. AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media, Barcelona, Spain.Google Scholar
  14. Blackman, M. C. (2002a). The employment interview via telephone: Are we sacrificing accurate personality judgments for cost efficiency? Journal of Research in Personality, 36, 208–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Blackman, M. C. (2002b). Personality judgment and the utility of the unstructured employment interview. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 24, 241–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Borkenau, P., & Liebler, A. (1992). Trait inferences: Sources of validity at zero acquaintance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62(4), 645. doi: 10.1037/0022–3514.62.4.645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Borkenau, P., & Liebler, A. (1995). Observable attributes as manisfestations and cues of personality and intelligence. Journal of Personality, 63, 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brunswik, E. (1956). Perception and the representative design of psychological experiments. Los Angeles: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  19. Caldwell, D. F., & Burger, J. M. (1998). Personality characteristics of job applicant and success in screening interviews. Personnel Psychology, 51, 119–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Campion, M. A., Cheraskin, L., & Stevens, M. J. (1994). Career-related antecedents and outcomes of job rotation. Academy of Management Journal, 37, 1518–1542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Connerley, M. L., & Rynes, S. L. (1997). The influence of recruiter characteristics and organizational recruitment support on perceived recruiter effectiveness: Views from applicants and recruiters. Human Relations, 50(12), 1563–1586. doi: 10.1023/a:1016923732255.Google Scholar
  22. Darley, J. M., & Fazio, R. H. (1980). Expectancy confirmation processes arising in the social interaction sequence. American Psychologist, 35, 867–881.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Delery, J. E., & Kacmar, K. M. (1998). The influence of applicant and interviewer characteristics on the use of impression management. Journal of Applied Psychology, 28, 1649–1669.Google Scholar
  24. DeGroot, T., & Gooty, J. (2009). Can nonverbal cues be used to make meaningful personality attributions in employment interviews? Journal of Business and Psychology, 24, 179–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. DePaulo, B. M. (1992). Nonverbal behavior and self-presentation. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 203–243. doi: 10.1037/0033–2909.111.2.203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dipboye, R. L. (1994). Structured and unstructured interviews: Beyond the job-fit model. In G. R. Ferris (Ed.), Research in personnel and human resources management (Vol. 12). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  27. Dixon, J. A., & Foster, D. H. (1998). Gender, social context, and backchannel responses. The Journal of Social Psychology, 138, 134–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dunn, W. S., Mount, M. K., Barrick, M. R., & Ones, D. S. (1995). Relative importance of personality and general mental ability in managers’ judgments of applicant qualifications. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80, 500–509. doi: 10.1037/0021–9010.80.4.500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Edinger, J. A., & Patterson, M. L. (1983). Nonverbal involvement and social control. Psychological Bulletin, 93, 30–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Forbes, R. J., & Jackson, P. R. (1980). Non-verbal behaviour and the outcome of selection interviews. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 53, 65–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Frauendorfer, D., & Schmid Mast, M. (2014a). Can recruiters accurately predict applicants’ job performance based on thin-slices of applicant job interview behavior? Yes, they can! Manuscript in preparation.Google Scholar
  32. Frauendorfer, D., & Schmid Mast, M. (2014b). The relation between applicant nonverbal behavior and recruiter hiring decision: A meta-analysis. Manuscript in preparation.Google Scholar
  33. Frauendorfer, D., Schmid Mast, M., Nguyen, L. S., & Gatica-Perez, D. (2014a). Predicting job performance based on automatically sensed and extracted applicant nonverbal interview behavior. Manuscript in preparation.Google Scholar
  34. Frauendorfer, D., Schmid Mast, M., Nguyen, L. S., & Gatica-Perez, D. (2014b). The role of the applicant’s nonverbal behvior in the job interview: A lens model approach. Manuscript in preparation.Google Scholar
  35. Frauendorfer, D., Schmid Mast, M., Nguyen, L. S., & Gatica-Perez, D. (2014). Nonverbal social sensing: Unobstrusive recording and extracting of nonverbal behavior in social interactions illustrated with a research example. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 38(2), 231–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fugita, S. S., Wexley, K. N., & Hillery, J. M. (1974). Black-white differences in nonverbal behavior in an interview setting. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 4(4), 343–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Furnham, A. (2008). HR professionals’ beliefs about, and knowledge of, assessment techniques and psychometric tests. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 16, 300–305. doi: 10.1111/j.1468–2389.2008.00436.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gatewood, R. D., Feild, H. S., & Barrick, M. R. (2011). Human resource selection. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.Google Scholar
  39. Gatica-Perez, D., Guillaume, L., Odobez, J.-M., & McCowan, I. (2007). Audiovisual tracking of multiple speakers in meetings. IEEE Trans. on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing, 15, 601–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gifford, R. (2006). Personality and nonverbal behavior: A complex conundrum. In V. Manusov & M. L. Patterson (Eds.), The sage handbook of nonverbal com-munication. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.Google Scholar
  41. Gifford, R. (2011). The role of nonverbal communication in interpersonal relations. In L. M. Horowitz & S. Strack (Eds.), Handbook of interpersonal psychology: Theory, research, assessment, and therapeutic interventions (pp. 171–190). NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  42. Gifford, R., Ng, C. F., & Wilkinson, M. (1985). Nonverbal cues in the employment interview: Links between applicant qualities and interviewer judgments. Journal of Applied Psychology, 70(4), 729–736. doi: 10.1037/0021–9010.70.4.729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gilmore, D. C., & Ferris, G. R. (1989). The effects of applicant impression management tactics on interviewer judgments. Journal of Management, 15, 557–564. doi: 10.1177/014920638901500405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gilmore, D. C., Stevens, C. K., Harrell-Cook, G., & Ferris, G. R. (1999). Impression management tactics. In R. W. Eder & M. M. Harris (Eds.), The employment interview handbook (pp. 321–336). Thousand Oakds, CA: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Glueck, W. (1973). Recruiters and executives: How do they affect job choice? Journal of College Placement, 34, 77–78.Google Scholar
  46. Goldberg, S., & Rosenthal, R. (1986). Self-touching behavior in the job interview: Antecedents and consequences. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 10, 65–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Goltz, S. M., & Giannantonio, C. M. (1995). Recruiter friendliness and attraction to the job: The mediating role of interferences about the organization. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 46, 109–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Guerrero, L. K. (2005). Observer ratings of nonverbal involvement and immediacy. In V. Manusov (Ed.), The sourcebook of nonverbal measures. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Publishers.Google Scholar
  49. Guion, R. M., & Highhouse, S. (2006). Essentials of personnel assessment and selection. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  50. Hall, J. A. (1984). Nonverbal sex differences: Communication accuracy and expressive style. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Hall, J. A., & Carter, J. D. (2000). Gender differences in nonverbal communication of emotion. In A. H. Fischer (Ed.), Gender and emotion: Social psychological perspectives. The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Hall, J. A., Coats, E. J., & LeBeau, L. S. (2005). Nonverbal behavior and the vertical dimension of social relations: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 131, 898–924.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Harn, T. J., & Thornton, G. C. (1985). Recruiter counselling behaviours and applicant impressions. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 58(1), 57–65. doi: 10.1111/j.2044–8325.1985.tb00180.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Harris, M. M. (1989). Reconsidering the employment interview: A review of recent literature and suggestions for future research. Personnel Psychology, 42(4), 691–726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Imada, A. S., & Hakel, M. D. (1977). Influence of nonverbal communication and rater proximity on impressions and decisions in simulated employment interviews. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62, 295–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Janz, T. (1982). Initial comparisons of patterned behavior description interviews versus unstructured interviews. Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 577–580. doi: 10.1037/0021–9010.67.5.577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kanki, B. G. (1985). Participant differences and interactive strategies. In S. F. Dunca & D. W. Fiske (Eds.), Interaction structure and strategy. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Keenan, A. (1976). Effects of the nonverbal behavior of interviewers on candidates’ performance. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 49, 171–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Keenan, A., & Wedderburn, A. A. I. (1975). Effects of the nonverbal behavior of interviewers on candidates’ impressions. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 48, 129–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kenny, D. A. (1994). Interpersonal perception: A social relations analysis. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  61. Kleinke, C. L., Staneski, R. A., & Berger, D. E. (1975). Evaluation of an interviewer as a function of interviewer gaze, reinforcement of subject gaze, and interviewer attractiveness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31(1), 115–122. doi: 10.1037/h0076244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kristof-Brown, A. L. (2000). Perceived applicant fit: Distinguishing between recruiter’s perception of person-job and person-organization fit. Personnel Psychology, 53(3), 643–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kristof-Brown, A. L., Barrick, M. R., & Franke, M. (2002). Applicant impression management: Dispositional influences and consequences for recruiter perceptions of fit and similarity. Journal of Management, 28, 27–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Krumhuber, E., Manstead, A., Cosker, D., Marshall, D., & Rosin, P. (2009). Effects of dynamic attributes of smiles in human and synthetic faces: A simulated job interview setting. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 33(1), 1–15. doi: 10.1007/s10919–008-0056–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Latu, I. M., Schmid Mast, M., & Stewart, T. L. (2013, January). Implicit behavioral confirmation in job interviews: Male recruiters’ implicit gender stereotypes (but not attitudes) decrease performance self-evaluations of female applicants. Paper presented at the Annual meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, New Orleans, LA.Google Scholar
  66. Leigh, T. W., & Summers, J. O. (2002). An initial evaluation of industrial buyers’ impressions of salespersons’ nonverbal cues. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 22, 41–53.Google Scholar
  67. Levashina, J., & Campion, J. E. (2006). A model of faking likelihood in the employment interview. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 14, 299–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Levashina, J., & Campion, M. A. (2007). Measuring faking in the employment interview: Development and validation of an interview faking behavior scale. Journal of applied psychology, 92, 1638–1656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Levine, S. P., & Feldman, R. S. (2002). Women and men’s nonverbal behavior and self-monitoring in a job interview setting. Applied H.R.M. Research, 7(1), 1–14.Google Scholar
  70. Liden, R. C., Martin, C. L., & Parsons, C. K. (1993). Interviewer and applicant behaviors in employment interviews. The Academy of Management Journal, 36(2), 372–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Marcus, B. (2006). Relationships between faking, validity, and decision criteria in personnel selection. Psychology Science, 48, 226–246.Google Scholar
  72. McComb, K. B., & Jablin, F. M. (1984). Verbal correlates of interviewer empathic listening and employment interview outcomes. Communication Monographs, 51, 353–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. McDaniel, M. A., Whetzel, D. L., Schmidt, F. L., & Maurer, S. D. (1994). The validity of employment interviews: A comprehensive review and meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 599–616. doi: 10.1037/0021–9010.79.4.599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. McGovern, T. V., & Tinsley, H. E. A. (1978). Interviewer evaluations of interviewee nonverbal behavior. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 13, 163–171. doi: 10.1016/0001–8791(78)90041–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Motowidlo, S. J., Carter, G. W., Dunnette, M. D., Tippins, N., Werner, S., Burnett, J. R., & Vaughan, M. J. (1992). Studies of the structured behavioral interview. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 571–587. doi: 10.1037/0021–9010.77.5.571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Murphy, N. A. (2005). Using thin slices for behavioral coding. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 29(4), 235–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Murphy, N. A., Hall, J., & Colvin, C. R. (2003). Accurate intelligence assessment in social interactions: Mediators and gender effects. Journal of Personality, 71, 465–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ng, E. S. W., & Sears, G. J. (2010). The effect of adverse impact in selection practices on organizational diversity: A field study. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21, 1454–1471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Nicholls, M. A. M., & Visser, D. (2010). Validation of a test battery for the selection of call centre operators in a communications company. South African Journal of Psychology, 39, 19–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Parsons, C. K., & Liden, R. C. (1984). Interviewer perceptions of applicant qualifications: A multivariate field study of demographic characteristics and nonverbal cues. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69, 557–568. doi: 10.1037/0021–9010.69.4.557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Peeters, H., & Lievens, F. (2006). Verbal and nonverbal impression management tactics in behavior description and situational interviews. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 14, 206–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Pelligrini, R. J., Hicks, R. A., & Gordon, L. (1970). The effect of an approval- seeking induction on eye-contact in dyads. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 9, 373–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Peterson, R. T. (2005). An examination of the relative effectiveness of training in nonverbal communication: Personal selling implications. Journal of Marketing Education, 27, 143–150. doi: 10.1177/0273475305276627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Powell, G. N. (1984). Effects of job attributes and recruiting practices on applicant decisions: A comparison. Personnel Psychology, 37, 721–732. doi: 10.1111/j.1744–6570.1984.tb00536.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Prickett, T., Gada-Jain, N., & Bernieri, F. J. (2000, May). First impression formation in a job interview: The first 20-seconds. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwestern Psychological Associaton Chicago, IL.Google Scholar
  86. Reis, H. T., & Charles, M. J. (2000). Handbook of research methods in social and personality psychology. The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  87. Roulin, N., Bangerter, A., & Levashina, J. (2014). Interviewers’ perceptions of impression management in employment interviews. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 29(2), 141–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Ruben, M., Hall, J., & Schmid Mast, M. (2012, January). Smiling in a job interview: When less is more. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society of Personality and Social Psychology, San Diego, CA.Google Scholar
  89. Rynes, S. L., & Miller, H. E. (1983). Recruiter and job influences on candidates for employment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68, 147–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Salgado, J. F., Viswesvaran, C., & Ones, D. S. (2001). Predictors used for peson- nel selection: An overview of constructs, methods, and techniques. In N. Anderson, D. S. Ones, H. K. Sinangil, & C. Viswesvaran (Eds.), Handbook of industrial, work, and organizational psychology (Vol. 1). Thousands Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  91. Schlenker, B. R. (1980). Impression management: The self-concept, social identity, and interpersonal relations. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  92. Schmid Mast, M., Bangerter, A., Bulliard, C., & Aerni, G. (2011). How accurate are recruiters’ first impressions of applicants in employment interviews? International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 19, 198–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Schmid Mast, M., Frauendorfer, D., & Sutter, C. (2014). To Add or not to Add a Photograph? Accuracy of Personality Judgments from Resumes with and without Photographs. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  94. Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1998). The validity and utility of selection methods in personnel psychology: Practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research findings. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 262–274. doi: 10.1037/0033–2909.124.2.262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Sigelman, C. K., & Davis, P. J. (1978). Making good impressions in job interviews: Verbal and nonverbal predictors. Education and Training of the Mentally Retarded, 13, 71–76.Google Scholar
  96. Sigelman, C. K., Elias, S. F., & Danker-Brown, P. (1980). Interview behaviors of mentally retarded adults as predictors of employability. Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, 67–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Snyder, M., & Swann, W. B. (1978). Behavioral confirmation in social interaction: From social perception to social reality. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 14, 148–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sommers, M. S., Greeno, D. W., & Boag, D. (1989). The role of non-verbal communication in service provision and representation. The Service Industrial Journal, 9(4), 162–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Staneski, R. A., Kleinke, C. L., & Meeker, F. B. (1977). Effects of integration, touch, and use of name on evaluation of job applicants and interviewers. Social Behavior and Personality, 5, 13–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sterrett, J. H. (1978). The job interview: Body language and perceptions of potential effectiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 63, 388–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Stevens, C. K., & Kristof, A. L. (1995). Making the right impression: A field study of applicant impression management during job interviews. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80, 587–606. doi: 10.1037/0021–9010.80.5.587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Taute, H. A., Heiser, R. S., & McArthur, D. N. (2011). The effect of nonverbal signals on student role-play evaluations. Journal of Marketing Education, 33, 28–40. doi: 10.1177/0273475310389153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Tessler, R., & Sushelsky, L. (1978). Effects of eye contact and social status on perception of a job applicant in an employment interviewing situation. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 13, 338–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Tews, M. J., Stafford, K., & Tracey, J. B. (2011). What matters most? The perceived importance of ability and personality for hiring decisions. Human Resources Management, 52, 94–101.Google Scholar
  105. Tsai, W.-C., Chen, C.-C., & Chiu, S.-F. (2005). Exploring boundaries of the effects of applicant impression management tactics in job interviews. Journal of Management, 31, 108–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Turban, D. B. (1992). Influences of campus recruiting on applicant attraction to firms. The Academy of Management Journal, 35(4), 739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Turban, D. B., Forret, M. L., & Hendrickson, C. L. (1998). Applicant attraction to firms: Influences of organization reputation, job and organizational attributes, and recruiter behaviors. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 52, 24–44. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.1996.1555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Van Vianen, A. E. M., & Van Schie, E. C. M. (1995). Assessment of male and female behavior in the employment interview. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 5, 243–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Washburn, P. V., & Hakel, M. D. (1973). Visual cues and verbal content as influences on impressions formed after simulated employment interviews. Journal of Applied Psychology, 58, 137–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Webster, E. C. (1964). Decision making in the employment interview. Montreal: Eagle.Google Scholar
  111. Wood, J. A. (2006). NLP revisited: Nonverbal communications and signals of trustworthiness. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 26, 197–204. doi: 10.2753/pss0885–3134260206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Woodzicka, J., & LaFrance, M. (2005). The effects of subtle sexual harassment on women’s performance in a job interview. Sex Roles, 53, 67–77. doi: 10.1007/s11199–005-4279–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Word, C. O., Zanna, M. P., & Cooper, J. (1974). The nonverbal mediation of selffulfilling prophecies in interracial interaction. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 10, 109–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Denise Frauendorfer and Marianne Schmid Mast 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Denise Frauendorfer
  • Marianne Schmid Mast

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations