The Apology in Democracies: Reflections on the Challenges of Competing Goods, Citizenship, Nationalism and Pluralist Politics

  • Michael Cunningham
Part of the Rhetoric, Politics and Society Series book series (RPS)


Much of the literature related to the issue of the political apology has focused on one of three areas; attempts to provide a definition of what a ‘real’ or genuine apology looks like and what criteria have to be satisfied to provide one, normative defences of the apology as contributing to various desirable outcomes (e.g. recognition, reconciliation, justice) and the grappling with issues such as collective or transgenerational responsibility, which underpin the coherence of the apology.


National Identity Public Intellectual Pluralist Politics Nationalist Sentiment Practical Politics 
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    Political realists often stress security and stability as important political ends, which may conflict with a politics based on more abstract principles of, for example, justice. See William A. Galston, ‘Realism in Political Theory’, European Journal of Political Theory 9, no. 4 (2010): 385–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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© Michael Cunningham 2014

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  • Michael Cunningham

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