L2 and L3 Integrated Learning: Lingua Franca Use in Learning an Additional Language in the Classroom

  • Spencer Hazel
  • Johannes Wagner
Part of the International Perspectives on English Language Teaching book series (INPELT)


This study offers an empirical account of the use of English in Danish-as-aforeign- language classroom settings. We will refer to English as the lingua franca – which in itself is a second language for the majority of the participants in the data – and to Danish as the target language. We consider implications of lingua franca interaction in target language classroom interactions, and show how in sequences where participants orient to linguistic issues in the target language, for example grammatical forms or lexical items, they often do this with reference to the lingua franca.


European Union Target Language Language Choice Language Classroom Linguistic Issue 
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    This equates with the Threshold (B1) level of The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR), (see
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    A combined Module 2/3, equivalent to the Waystage (A2/B1) level of The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages.Google Scholar

Further reading

  1. Haberland, LØnsmann and Preisler. (eds). (2013). Language Alternation, Language Choice and Language Encounter in International Tertiary Education. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  2. This volume gathers together a large number of studies carried out at universities worldwide, teasing out the implications of the modern, globalised age for the multilingual realities of those living, studying, and working in these dynamic settings. Also relevant to this chapter is the focus on how English used as a lingua franca coexists with other languages, as participants go about their engagements with other transnationally mobile parties to these institutional settings.Google Scholar
  3. Hall, J. Hellerman, J. and Pekarek-Doehler, S. (eds). (2011). L2 Interactional Competence and Development. Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  4. Pallotti, G. and Wagner, J. (eds). (2011). L2 Learning as Social Practice: Conversation-Analytic Perspectives. Honolulu: NFLRCGoogle Scholar
  5. Both volumes foreground the social–rather than the cognitive–implications of L2 learning. The studies presented here apply conversation analytic methods to data where there is an orientation to language learning, either in or away from the classroom.Google Scholar
  6. Gregersen, F. (ed.). (2014). Hvor parallelt. Om parallelspråkighet på Nordens universitet. Copenhagen: Nordisk Ministerråad Publication 2014:535. Available at www.norden. org/da/publikationerGoogle Scholar
  7. This volume, written in Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish, with English summaries of each contribution, describes the parallel use of English and one or more local languages at the universities in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Norway, and Iceland).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Spencer Hazel and Johannes Wagner 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Spencer Hazel
  • Johannes Wagner

There are no affiliations available

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