Giving and Following Pedagogical Instructions in Task-Based Instruction: An Ethnomethodological Perspective

  • Numa Markee
Part of the International Perspectives on English Language Teaching book series (INPELT)


Every day, millions of English as a Second/Foreign Language (ES/FL) and content teachers working in L1s all over the world give students oral instructions (which are themselves often restatements of written instructions contained in textbooks) concerning what learners are to do in the immediately following stretch of class activity. Despite the familiar and ubiquitous nature of this practice, the topic of how teachers (or their designated delegates) give students oral instructions, and how learners follow these instructions, has received surprisingly little attention in the Applied Linguistics (AL) and Second Language Acquisition (SLA) research literatures. The same is true in the teacher education and training literatures. While there is widespread agreement that it is important for teachers to give good pedagogical instructions, there are next to no empirically based examples of how teachers actually perform these courses of action available to guide new teachers’ practices.


Prediction Task Conversation Analysis Frame Grab Apply Linguistics Model Dialogue 
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  1. 1.
    Following Markee and Kunitz (2013, Note 1), this term is used to refer to individual cognitive approaches to SL learning.Google Scholar

Further reading

  1. Burns, A. (2010). Doing Action Research in English Language Teaching: A Guide for Practitioners. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  2. This guide provides teachers with useful information about how to carry out action research in different ways. Teachers who have never done research on their own teaching will find this a valuable, highly accessible resource.Google Scholar
  3. Markee, N. (2015). The Handbook of Classroom Discourse and Interaction. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. This handbook contains 30 state-of-the-art chapters by leading authorities on how talk in second-, foreign-, and heritage-language classrooms located in Canada, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Timor Leste, the UK, and the US is organised from different theoretical perspectives.Google Scholar
  5. Richards, K., Ross, S. J., and Seedhouse, P. (2011). Research Methods for Applied Language Studies. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  6. This book is an advanced resource book for students following Master’s and PhD programmes in ESL/EFL and applied linguistics. As such, it presupposes some familiarity with different research methods and approaches.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Numa Markee 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Numa Markee

There are no affiliations available

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