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The dismantling of the Berlin Wall on November 9, 1989, provided a memorable symbol for the end of an era and a convenient endpoint for the century. For those climbing the wall and picking away at its brick and mortar, it was more an end than a beginning. It had been a long time coming, and, by late 1989, the end of the Cold War seemed inevitable. What would replace it, or how societies and governments would react to its demise was not clear. But no sooner had the moment arrived than a wave of retrospective determinism was unleashed (Garton Ash 2009).
KeywordsEuropean Union European Monetary Union European Economic Community Iron Curtain European History
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