Advertisement

Employment Instability and Childbearing Plans in a Child-Oriented Country: Evidence from France

  • Ariane Pailhé
  • Anne Solaz
Chapter
Part of the Work and Welfare in Europe book series (RECOWE)

Abstract

The link between female employment and childbearing has attracted much research attention over the past decades, as fertility rates in Europe and elsewhere in the industrialised world have declined and remained below the level necessary for population replacement. Studies addressing the relationship have typically focused on the impact of female employment on fertility. Despite much research on this issue, causality remains unclear (Mira and Ahn, 2002; Engelhardt and Prskawetz, 2004; Kögel, 2004). Lately, the focus of the debate has moved from the effect of women’s employment on fertility to the effect of job insecurity on fertility for several reasons. First, the spread of dual-earner couples in high-income countries has made women’s employment less of an option but rather a fact. It is no longer female employment that has to adapt to fertility but the reverse, and fertility is guided by the possibility of mothers of being able to work and the conditions of work-family balance (Brewster and Rindfuss, 2000). Second, women’s employment is often an economic necessity for the family. Since the 1980s, the growing insecurity on the labour market with the high frequency of short-term jobs and high rates of unemployment has changed the context of childbearing decisions. Thus, the issue is no longer participating in the labour market so much as getting and keeping a job, for both men and women.

Keywords

Parental Leave Labour Force Survey Fertility Intention Unemployed People Economic Uncertainty 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adema, W. and M. Ladaique (2005) ‘Net Social Expenditure — 2005 Edition. More Comprehensive Measures of Social Support’, OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers, 8(29).Google Scholar
  2. Adsera, A. (2004) ‘Changing Fertility Rates in Developed Countries. The Impact of Labour Market Institutions’, Journal of Population Economics, 17 (1), 17–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adsera, A. (2011) ‘Where are the Babies? Labour Market Conditions and Fertility in Europe’, European Journal of Population, 27 (1), 1–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahn, N. and P. Mira (2001) ‘Job Bust, Baby Bust?: Evidence from Spain’, Journal of Population Economics, 14 (3), 505–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Andersson, G. (2000) ‘The Impact of Labour-Force Participation on Childbearing Behaviour: Pro-Cyclical Fertility in Sweden during the 1980s and the 1990s’, European Journal of Population, 16 (4), 293–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Becker, G. S. (1981) A Treatise on the Family (Cambridge/London: Harvard University Press).Google Scholar
  7. Berrington, A. (2004) ‘Perpetual Postponers? Women’s, Men’s and Couple’s Fertility Intentions and Subsequent Fertility Behaviour’, Population Trends, 117, 9–19.Google Scholar
  8. Blossfeld, E. K., M. Mills and K. Kurz (2005) Globalization, Uncertainty and Youth in Society (London/New York: Routledge Advances in Sociology Series).Google Scholar
  9. Bongaarts, J. (2001) ‘Fertility and Reproductive Preferences in Post-Transitional Societies’, Population and Development Review, 27 (Supplement: Global Fertility Transitions), 260–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brewster, K. L. and R. R. Rindfuss (2000) ‘Fertility and Women’s Employment in Industrialized Nations’, Annual Review of Sociology, 26: 271–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chardon, O. and F. Daguet (2008) ‘Enquêtes annuelles de recensement 2004 à 2007. L’activité des femmes est toujours sensible au nombre d’enfants’, Insee Première, 1171.Google Scholar
  12. De La Rica, S. and A. Iza (2005) ‘Career Planning in Spain: Do Fixed-Term Contracts Delay Marriage and Parenthood?’ Review of the Economics of the Household, 3 (1), 49–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Duguet, E. and P. Petit (2005) ‘Hiring Discrimination in the French Financial Sector: An Econometric Analysis on Field Experiment Data’, Annales d’Economie et de Statistique, 78: 79–102.Google Scholar
  14. Ekert-Jaffé, O., H. Joshi, K. Lynch, R. Mougin and M. Rendall (2002) ‘Fertility, Timing of Births and Socio-Economic Status in France and Britain: Social Policies and Occupational Polarization’, Population, 57 (3), 475–507.Google Scholar
  15. Engelhardt, H. and A. Prskawetz (2004) ‘On the Changing Correlation between Fertility and Female Employment over Space and Time’, European Journal of Population, 20 (1), 35–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Eurostat (2011) Statistics, http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/statistics/search_database (home page), (accessed 5 August 2011).Google Scholar
  17. Fahlén, S. and L. Sz. Oláh (2009) ‘Female Employment, Work Hours and Childbearing Intentions in Sweden in the Early 2000s: A Capability Perspective’, paper presented at the Third Annual RECWOWE Conference, Utrecht, the Netherlands, 9–13 June 2009.Google Scholar
  18. Fondeur, Y. and C. Minni (2004) ‘L’emploi des jeunes au coeur des dynamiques du marché du travail’, Économie et Statistique, 378(378–379), 85–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Friedman, D., M. Hechter and S. Kanazawa (1994) ‘A Theory of the Value of Children’, Demography, 31 (3), 375–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hakim, C. (1998) ‘Developing a Sociology for the 21st century: Preference Theory’, British Journal of Sociology, 49 (1): 137–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hobcraft, J. and K. Kiernan (1995) Becoming a Parent in Europe, EAPS/IUSSP European Population Conference Proceedings, United Nations Population Information Network Milano, 4–8 September 1995.Google Scholar
  22. Hobson, B. and L. Sz. Oláh (2006) ‘Birthstrikes? Agency and Capabilities in the Reconciliation of Employment and Family’, Marriage amp; Family Review, 39 (3–4), 197–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hoem, B. (2000) ‘Entry into Motherhood in Sweden: The Influence of Economic Factors on the Rise and Fall in Fertility, 1986–1997’, Demographic Research, 2 (4).Google Scholar
  24. Impens, K. (1989) ‘The Impact of Female Unemployment on Fertility in Flanders’, in R. L. Cliquet, G. Dooghe, J. De Jong-Gierveld and F. Van Poppel (eds) Population and Family in Low Countries VI, NIDI/CBGS Publications nr. 18, 119–140.Google Scholar
  25. INSEE [National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies] (2011a) Labour Force Survey, http://www.insee.fr/en/themes/theme.asp?theme=3 (accessed 5 August 2011).Google Scholar
  26. INSEE [National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies] (2011b) Labour Force Survey, http://www.insee.fr/fr/themes/tableau.asp?reg_id=0amp;ref_id=NATnon03178 (accessed 5 August 2011).Google Scholar
  27. Kögel, T. (2004) ‘Did the Association between Fertility and Female Employment within OECD Countries Really Change its Sign?’ Journal of Population Economics, 17 (1), 45–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kohler, H.-P., F. Billari, and J. Ortega (2005) ‘Low Fertility in Europe: Causes, Implications and Policy Options’, in F. Harris (ed.) The Baby Bust: Who Will do the Work? Who Will Pay the Taxes? (Lanham, MD: Rowman amp; Littlefield Publishers), 48–109.Google Scholar
  29. Korpi, W. (2000) ‘Faces of Inequality: Gender, Class, and Patterns of Inequalities in Different Types of Welfare States’, Social Politics, 7 (2), 127–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kravdal, Ø. (1994) ‘The Importance of Economic Activity, Economic Potential and Economic Resources for the Timing of First Births in Norway’, Population Studies, 48 (2), 249–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kravdal, Ø. (2002) ‘The Impact of Individual and Aggregate Unemployment on Fertility in Norway’, Demographic Research, 6 (10), 263–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kreyenfeld, M. (2005) ‘Economic Uncertainty and Fertility Postponement. Evidence from German Panel Data’, MPDIR Working Paper, WP-2005–034.Google Scholar
  33. Lundström, K. E. (2009) ‘Labour Market Status and Fertility Behaviour for Swedish and Foreign-Born Men and Women’, paper presented at the Workshop on Economic Uncertainty and Fertility Dynamics, Berlin, 3–4 July 2009.Google Scholar
  34. McDonald, P. (2000) ‘Gender Equity, Social Institutions and the Future of Fertility’, Journal of Population Research, 17 (1), 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Meron, M. and I. Widmer (2002) ‘Unemployment Leads Women to Postpone the Birth of their First Child’, Population English Edition, 57 (2), 301–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mira, P. and N. Ahn (2002) ‘A Note on the Changing Relationship between Fertility and Female Employment Rates in Developed Countries’, Journal of Population Economics, 15 (4), 667–682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ponthieux, S. and A. Schreiber (2006) ‘Dans les couples de salariés, la reparti-tion du travail domestique reste inégale’, in Insee, Données sociales La société française, 43–51.Google Scholar
  38. Regnier-Loilier, A. and A. Solaz (2010) ‘La décision d’avoir un enfant: une liberté sous contraintes’, Politiques sociales et familiales, 100, 61–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rindfuss, R. R., K. Brewster and A. Kavee (1996) ‘Women, Work, and Children: Behavioral and Attitudinal Change in the United States’, Population and Development Review, 22 (3), 457–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rosenzweig, M. R. (1976) ‘Female Work Experience, Employment Status, and Birth Expectations: Sequential Decision-Making in the Philippines’, Demography, 13 (3), 339–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Schmitt, C. (2008) ‘Gender-Specific Effects of Unemployment on Family Formation: A Cross-National Perspective’, DIW Berlin, Discussion Papers, 841.Google Scholar
  42. Schoen, R., M. A. Nan, K. Young, N. Constance and J. Field (1999) ‘Do Fertility Intentions Affect Fertility Behavior?’ Journal of Marriage and Family, 61 (3), 790–799.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Spéder, Zs. and B. Kapitány (2009) ‘How are Time-Dependent Childbearing Intentions Realized? Realization, Postponement, Abandonment, Bringing Forward’, European Journal of Population, 25 (4), 503–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sobotka, T., V. Skirbekk and D. Philipov (2011) ‘Economic Recession and Fertility in the Developed World, a Literature Review’, Population and Development Review 37 (2): 267–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Solaz, A. (2005) ‘Division of Domestic Work: Is There Adjustment between Partners When One is Unemployed? Evidence from French Couples’, Review of Economics of the Household, 3 (4), 387–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Testa, M. R. and L. Toulemon (2006) ‘Family Formation in France: Individual Preferences and Subsequent Outcomes’, Vienna Yearbook of Population Research 2006, 4: 41–75.Google Scholar
  47. Tölke, A. and M. Diewald (2003) ‘Insecurities in Employment and Occupational Careers and their Impact on the Transition to Fatherhood in Western Germany’, Demographic Research, 9 (3), 41–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Toulemon, L., A. Pailhé and C. Rossier (2008) ‘France: High and Stable Fertility’, Childbearing Trends and Policies in Europe’, Demographic Research (Special Collection 7), 19 (16), 503–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Venn, D. (2009) ‘Legislation, Collective Bargaining and Enforcement: Updating the OECD Employment Protection Indicators’, OECD-Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers, 17 (89).Google Scholar
  50. Vikat, A (2004) ‘Women’s Labor Force Attachment and Childbearing in Finland’, Demographic Research, 3 (8), 177–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Vitali, A., F. Billari, A. Prskawetz and M. R. Testa (2009) ‘Preference Theory and Low Fertility: A Comparative Perspective’, European Journal of Population, 25 (4), 413–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Ariane Pailhé and Anne Solaz 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ariane Pailhé
  • Anne Solaz

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations