The process of modernization and Europeanization of Turkey dates back to the early 19th century. It was argued in the first chapter that the definition of nation (millet) in modern Turkey very much parallels the millet system of the Ottoman Empire. The nation has been defined in Turkey with reference to religion in a way that includes Muslims and excludes non-Muslims. However, the deepening of the Europeanization process in the aftermath of the Helsinki Summit of December 1999 has brought about a remarkable change in the perception of ethnocultural and religious minorities by the state actors, leading to a discursive shift from the republican discourse of ‘unity over diversity’ to a more democratic and pluralist discourse of ‘unity in diversity’. However, this positive period has been marred by a rising tide of Euroskepticism, deriving from both internal and external dynamics. The opening chapter also analyzed the ways in which the Turkish electorate has become more attracted politically to the AKP at a time when the culturalist and religious discourse has become very popular globally.


Religious Minority Turkish Society Religious Culture Turkish State Multiple Modernity 
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© Ayhan Kaya 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ayhan Kaya
    • 1
  1. 1.Istanbul Bilgi UniversityTurkey

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