Modern China’s national development defied the teleological “master course” to follow an alternative trajectory. It was essentially a collective search for, successively, a revolutionary alternative to colonial modernity, a socialist alternative to Stalinist statism, and a reformist alternative to capitalist integration. This trajectory, never smooth and full of contradictions and setbacks, has nevertheless modified the typical periodization of the modern and “world time” of globalization (Lin 2006: 57). This unique historical experience distinguishes itself from other national paths or choices, typically Soviet communism, considered a betrayal of a socially centered socialism, and third world capitalism, which has mired much of the postcolonial world in poverty and conflict.
KeywordsState Sector Social Power Socialist Market Global Capitalism Mass Line
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- 11.The poverty line was set in 2011 at 2,300 yuan ($363) per annum, by which standard 128 million were considered in poverty. In July 2011, there were 22.8 million people in the government’s urban subsistence security system and 52.4 million in its rural system, plus 5.5 million covered by the “five guarantees” under the collective responsibility and 62.3 million in various state priority schemes of social relief. An unknown number of unregistered people living in poverty are not included in these figures released by the Ministry of Civil Affairs ( People’s Daily, Aug 29 2011).Google Scholar
- 14.It is in the nature of despotism that it should foster single-minded material desires and propagate their havoc, lowering the collective morale (quoted in Daniel A. Bell, “After the Tsunami,” New Republic , Mar 9, 1998: 25).Google Scholar