Advertisement

Frontier Zones of Diaspora-Making: Circassian Organizations in Turkey

  • Lars Funch Hansen
Chapter
  • 102 Downloads

Abstract

After 150 years in relative oblivion as a scattered and forgotten people, the Circassians are now reemerging as a visible and internationally recognized ethnic group insisting on their place in the history books as well as on their contemporary rights as minority and diaspora groups in different national contexts. The Circassians—along with their historical North Caucasian homeland Circassia that was once situated between the Black Sea coast and the northern slopes of the Caucasus mountain range—were well known in the nineteenth century. Their centurylong resistance to Russian conquest and colonization was followed by the international media and supported by official as well as unofficial actors from Great Britain and the Ottoman Empire. Following their final defeat in the 1860s, the majority of Circassians went into exile in Ottoman Turkey and, today, the largest contingent of Circassians—several million—are still found in Turkey, though an increasing part of the diaspora can also be found in the Middle East, Western Europe, and North America. In the Russian North Caucasus the Circassians of today includes the Adyge, the Cherkess, and the Kabardinians, where they constitute titular-nationalities in three federal republics.1

Keywords

Civil Society Ethnic Minority Global City Civil Society Action Turkish Society 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Bibliography

  1. Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Ref lections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. Revised edition. London and New York: Verso, 1991. ———. “When the Virtual Becomes Real.” www.nettime.org, 1997. The Spectre of Comparisons: Nationalism, Southeast Asia and the World. London: Verso, 1998. Appadurai, Arjun. “Grassroots Globalization and the Research Imagination.” In Globalization, edited by Arjun Appadurai. Durham, NC and London: Duke University Press, 2001. Bas, Nusret. “The Circassian Diaspora in Turkey.” JRL Research and Analytical Supplement 42 (2008): 1–22.Google Scholar
  2. Brinkerhoff, Jenifer M. Digital Diasporas. Identity and Transnational Engagement. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brubaker, Rogers. Nationalism Reframed: Nationhood and the National Question in the New Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.Google Scholar
  4. Supplement 42 . “The ‘Diaspora’ Diaspora.” Ethnic and Racial Studies. 28, 1 (2005): 1–19.Google Scholar
  5. Chaliand, Gerard. “How Changing Geopolitical Realities Impact on the South Caucasus.” http://www.civilitasfoundation.org/cf/events/446-gerard -chal iand-on-qhow-changing-geopol itical-real ities-impact-the-south -caucasusq.html, 2010. Clark, Bruce. Twice a Stranger: How Mass Expulsion Forged Modern GreeceGoogle Scholar
  6. and Turkey. London: Granta Publications, 2006.Google Scholar
  7. Cohen, Robin. Global Diasporas. An Introduction. London: Routledge, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Corlu, Janet Mayragül. Circassians in Istanbul. Istanbul: Nart Yayincilik, 1993.Google Scholar
  9. Grugel, J. and A. Uhlin. 2009. Civil Society, Democracy and Global Governance. ECPR Joint Sessions. Lisbon.Google Scholar
  10. Flyvbjerg, Bent. “Habermas and Foucault: Thinkers for Civil Society?” British Journal of Sociology 49, 2 (1998): 210–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Forte, Maximillian. “Amerindian@Caribbean: Internet Indigeneity in the Electronic Generation of Carib and Taino Identitites.” In Native on the Net: Indigenous and Diasporic Peoples in the Virtual Age, edited by Kyra Landzelius. New York and Abingdon: Routledge, 2006.Google Scholar
  12. Hall, Stuart. “Cultural Identity and Diaspora.” In Identity: Community, Culture, Difference, edited by J. Rutherford. London: Lawrence & Wishart: 222–37, 1990.Google Scholar
  13. Hakkarainen O. et al. Voices from the Southern Civil Societies. Helsinki: IDS, UoH, valt.helsinki.fi/kmi/tutkimus/project/voices/0/toc.htm, 2002. Hansen Lars Funch and Helen Liesl Krag. Nordkaukasus. Copenhagen: MuseumGoogle Scholar
  14. Tusculanums Forlag, 2002.Google Scholar
  15. Hatk, I. “The Russian-Circassian War 1763–1864 (May 21).” In Al-Waha— Oasis. 51: 10–15, http://www.circassianworld.com/new/war-and-genocide /1126-russian-circassian-war-1763–21-may-1864-by-isam-hatk-.html, 1992.Google Scholar
  16. Jaimoukha, Amjad. The Circassians—a Handbook. London: Curzon, 2001. Karaosmanoglu, Kerem. “Reimagining Minorities in Turkey: Before and after the AKP.” Insight Turkey 12, 2 (2010 ): 193–212.Google Scholar
  17. Kaya, Ayhan. “Cultural Reification in Circassian Diaspora—Stereotypes, Prejudices and Ethnic Relations.” In Representations of the Others in the Mediterranean World and their Impact on the Region, edited by N. Kuran-Burcoglu and S. G. Miller. Istanbul: The ISIS Press: 217–40. (from: www.de-regulation. org./node/8, 1–9), 2005.Google Scholar
  18. Kleist, Nauja. “In the Name of Diaspora: Between Struggles for Recognition and Political Aspirations.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 34, 7 (2007 ): 1127–43.Google Scholar
  19. Kuzmanovic, Daniella. “Refractions of Civil Society.” PhDThesis, University of Copenhagen, 2008. Köker, Levent. “A Key to the ‘Democratic Opening’: Rethinking Citizenship,Google Scholar
  20. Ethnicity and Turkish Nation-state.” Insight Turkey 12, 2 (2010 ): 49–69.Google Scholar
  21. Lewis, David. “Civil Society in Non-Western Contexts: Ref lections on the ‘Usefulness’ of a Concept.” Civil Society Working Paper 13, CCS, LSE (2001): 1–13.Google Scholar
  22. Murray, Catherine A. “The Third Sector: Cultural Diversity and Civil Society.” Canadian Journal of Communication 27, 2 (2002 ): 331–350.Google Scholar
  23. Ong, Aihwa. “Cyberpublics and Diaspora Politics among Transnational Chinese.” Interventions 5, 1 (2003): 82–100. Pollock, Graham. “Civil Society Theory and Euro-nationalism.” Studies in Social & Google Scholar
  24. Political Thought 4 (2001): 31–56.Google Scholar
  25. Safran, William. “Comparing Diasporas: A Review Essay.” Diaspora 8, 3 (1999): 255–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Safran, William. “Comparing Diasporas: A Review Essay.” Diaspora 8, 3 . “Diasporas in modern societies: myths of homeland and return.” Diaspora: a journal of transnational studies. 1, 1 (1991): 83–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sassen, Saskia. “Women in the Global City: Exploitation and Empowerment.” Lol@. 1. Online: lolapress.org, 2000. ———. “Spatialities and Temporalities of the Global: Elements for aGoogle Scholar
  28. Theorization.” In Globalization, edited by Arjun Appadurai. Durham, NC and London: Duke University Press, 2001. ———. “Cities as Frontier Zones: Mak ing Infor mal Politics.” www.16beavergroup.org/archives/002282.php,2007.Google Scholar
  29. Safran, William. “Comparing Diasporas: A Review Essay.” Diaspora 8, 3 . “A New Frontier Space.” tpmcafe.talkingpointsmemo.com/2009/03/19 /a_new_frontier_space/, 2009.Google Scholar
  30. Shami, Seteney. “Circassian Encounters: The Self as Other and the Production of the Homeland in the North Caucasus.” Development and Change 29 (1998): 617–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tlisova, Fatima. “The War on Circassian Nationalism.” JRL Research and Analytical Supplement 42 (2008): 1–22. Turner, Simon. The Waxing and Waning of the Political Field in Burundi and itsGoogle Scholar
  32. Diaspora. Ethnic and Racial Studies 31, 4 (May 2008): 742–765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Van Hear, Nicholas. New Diasporas: The Mass Exodus, Dispersal and Regrouping of Migrant Communities. London: UCL Press, 1998.Google Scholar
  34. Van Rooy, Alison. “The Civil Society Agenda: Switching Gears in the Post Cold War World.” Toronto: nsi-ins.ca/English/pdf/tor.pdf, 1998.Google Scholar

Websites

  1. www.lse.ac.uk/collections/CCS/what_is_civil_society.htmGoogle Scholar
  2. www.nettime.org/lists-archives/nettime-1–9711/msg00019.htmlGoogle Scholar
  3. www.valt.helsinki.fi/kmi/tutkimus/project/voices/0/toc.htm www.nsi-ins.ca/English/pdf/tor.pdfGoogle Scholar
  4. http://www.civilitasfoundation.org/cf/events/446-gerard-chaliand-on-qhow -changing-geopolitical-realities-impact-the-south-caucasusq.html www.windowoneurasia.blogspot.com kaf kasfederasyonu.orgGoogle Scholar
  5. www.kaf kasyaforumu.org www.nosochi2014.comGoogle Scholar

Newspapers

  1. Todays Zaman, Turkey (www.todayszaman.com)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Jens Dahl and Esther Fihl 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lars Funch Hansen

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations