Egypt: Transition in the Midst of Revolution

  • Hesham Sallam
Part of the Elections, Voting, Technology book series (EVT)


The January 25 Revolution and the toppling of Hosni Mubarak in February 2011 paved the way for a host of unprecedented transformations in Egypt’s political landscape, most notably ending Mubarak’s National Democratic Party (NDP)’s decades-long monopoly over political power. Previously marginalized groups now had a real opportunity to contest political office and the political field was open to new actors and coalitions. For first time in contemporary Egyptian history, elections were held without the overt intervention of the state’s coercive apparatus and in the official presence of international election observation groups. The legal framework that governed the 2011–2012 legislative and the 2012 presidential elections, while imperfect, allowed for the participation of multitude candidates and parties. Most importantly, electoral results seemed uncertain until the moment the polls closed.


Presidential Election Muslim Brotherhood Legislative Election Security Sector Reform Hybrid Regime 
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© Mahmoud Hamad and Khalil al-Anani 2014

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  • Hesham Sallam

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