National Frames: Reactions to a Multi-Level World
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Research has established that the national dimension must be placed at the heart of the analysis of European integration. On the one hand, statistical analysis of the Eurobarometer surveys regularly provides evidence that national differences are still paramount in the analysis of citizens’ representations of Europe (Risse 2003; Citrin & Sides 2004). On the other hand, studies of elites (Wodak 2004; Schmidt 2006) confirm the importance of national frames in the way in which European elites understand Europe. Furthermore, both theoretical and empirical studies stress the importance of national legacies. Bartolini argues that ‘The problem and the fate of the EU cannot be studied adequately without considering the historical legacies of its ingredient: the nation state’ (Bartolini 2005: 116). This is as relevant to the analysis of citizens’ relationship to integration as it is to the study of nation-states and Europe.
KeywordsFocus Group European Integration Cultural Identity European Level Historical Narrative
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