The EITI Transparency Standard: Between Global Power Shifts and Local Conditionality
At the turn of the twentieth century, a series of corruption scandals throughout the Global South (Shell in Nigeria; Total in francophone Africa; Newmont Mining in Peru, etc.) attracted growing international attention to the relationships between governments and businesses in the extractive sector. Practices that prevailed in the past which were long conceived as a normal way of doing business were being put into question. Corruption, in particular, started to be characterised as a hindrance to development and as a problem that needed to be addressed (Krastev, 2004; Gray & Kaufmann, 1998). Under the influence of a nascent literature dedicated to the resource curse, international organisations started to re-orient their policy analysis from general fiscal and economic considerations to incorporating institutional recommendations (Vallée, 2010; Arellano Yanguas, 2008).1
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