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Burundi provides an example of deeply entrenched ethnic hostility which has resulted in continuous conflict for the past 50 years. The decades after independence and before UN intervention were marked by violent conflict and cyclic change. The main underlying causes of these dynamics were not political or ideological differences but ethnic and regional ones. During most of this period the country was controlled by various elite Tutsi military regimes which often behaved brutally toward the Hutu majority. Thus the decades of conflict in Burundi represent a power struggle in its most basic form. After the early post-independent elections and the 1966 coup by the Tutsi-dominated military, power shifts were between competing factions of Tutsi officers as opposed to competing political parties. Conflict reached new heights after the assassination of the first democratically elected president in 1993.
KeywordsPenal Code Democratic Institution Security Agent Security Force Democratic Transition
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- 1.Lemarchand, R. (1994) Burundi, Ethnocide as Discourse and Practice (New York: Woodrow Wilson Center Press)Google Scholar