Layers of Complexity
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Academics versus vocationalism. Racism versus progressivism. Growth versus regression or stagnation. Irony, paradox, and ambiguity were the mélange of social constructs and life perspectives that collectively capture the complexity of the reality faced by Hope, the GEB, and the Rockefellers, as they worked to create true higher education institutions for blacks. In practical terms, this mélange took form as two broad overlapping layers. Unique insight was required to reconcile the confusing array. Rockefeller Sr.’s systematic methodology honed in his business enterprises, along with the GEB’s analysis and investigative approach, had to combine with John Hope’s inspirational leadership to solve the problems faced by Atlanta’s three nascent black institutions providing higher education.
KeywordsBlack College Missionary School Missionary Society Black Teacher Black Institution
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- 1.Bacote, Story of Atlanta University, 5. McGuffey’s Reader were primer series of readers for children created by William Holmes McGuffey in 1836. These readers were used in schools to emphasize morality and Americanism. Besides training students in English and grammar, these texts introduced poetry and the writings of statesmen, politicians, moralists, and religious leaders. Kevin Ryan and James Cooper, Those Who Can, Teach, 7th ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1995), 153; McGuffy’s Reader, 4th ed. (New York: American Book, 1879).Google Scholar
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