Advertisement

Mythical Phoenix and the Ashes It Spreads

  • Vida L. Avery
Chapter
  • 46 Downloads
Part of the Philanthropy and Education book series (PHILAED)

Abstract

From the end of the Civil War through the beginning of World War I, the third group of philanthropists, industrial philanthropists, emerged. More visible than missionary societies, this group was comprised of wealthy individuals, such as Andrew Carnegie (steel), J. P. Morgan (banking, later steel), Jay Gould and Cornelius Vanderbilt (railroad), John D. Rockefeller Sr. (oil), and large philanthropic foundations. The most important of the secular foundations during this time were the Peabody Education Fund, John Slater Fund, Daniel Hand Education Fund for Colored People, Julius Rosenwald Fund, Phelps-Stokes Fund, Carnegie Foundation, and General Education Board.

Keywords

Rural School Black College Wealthy Individual Carnegie Foundation White Institution 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    Laurence Veysey, The Emergence of the American University (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965), 3.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    James D. Anderson, “Philanthropic Control over Private Black Higher Education,” in Philanthropy and Cultural Imperialism, ed. Robert F. Arnove (Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1980), 154–155, 163;Google Scholar
  3. James D. Anderson, The Education of Blacks in the South, 1860–1935 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988), 241.Google Scholar
  4. 3.
    Anderson, “Philanthropic Control over Private Black Colleges,” 173, 163; Atlanta University: Purpose of Atlanta University, box 96, folder 6, Hope Records, AUC; Wallace Buttrick to John D. Rockefeller Jr., February 14, 1914, box 203, folder 1937, Oswald Villard, 1903–1954, GEB, RAC; General Education Board: An Account of Its Activities, 1902–1914 (New York: General Education Board, 1915), 208; and Raymond B. Fosdick, Henry F. Pringle, and Katherine Douglas Pringle, Adventures in Giving: The Story of the General Education Board (New York: Harper & Row, 1962), 88–89.Google Scholar
  5. 4.
    Herbert Spencer, quoted in Stewart H. Holbrooke, The Age of the Moguls (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1952), 88.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ronald C. White Jr., Liberty and Justice for All: Racial Reform and the Social Gospel, with a foreword by James M. McPherson (New York: Harper & Row, 1990), xx, xxi.Google Scholar
  7. 9.
    Edwin Embree, “Rockefeller Foundation,” 1930, box 1, folder 3, Edwin Embree Papers, Rockefeller Archive Center, Sleepy Hollow, New York. (Hereafter, designated as Embree Papers and RAC); Alice Fleming, Ida Tarbell: First of the Muckrakers (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1971), 112, 126–127. In 1906, President Theodore Roosevelt condemned reckless and irresponsible journalists who only reported the “bad side of things” and took advantage of the public’s response to Tarbell’s expose by writing in the interest of sensationalism. He compared these individuals with the character in John Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress and called them “muckrakers.” Though Roosevelt also praised those writers who were attacking “legitimate social ills,” he did not distinguish the term between the two; thus, “muckraker” eventually became a term applied to those journalists, like Tarbell, “who were working on behalf of reform.” Fleming indicated, “The insult was transformed into a term of approval, and Ida, who had at first resented being called a muck-raker, came to accept the title as a badge of distinction.”Google Scholar
  8. 11.
    John D. Rockefeller Sr., Random Reminiscences of Men and Events (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, Page, 1913), 58;Google Scholar
  9. Ron Chernow, Titan: The Life of John D. Rockefeller, Sr. (New York: Random House, 1998), xxi; and Holbrook, Age of the Moguls, 67.Google Scholar
  10. 19.
    John Ensor Harr and Peter J. Johnson, The Rockefeller Conscience: An American Family in Public and in Private (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, Marmillian, 1991), xiv.Google Scholar
  11. 24.
    Veysey, American University, 126. Veysey explained that most American universities did not initially implement the German model; instead, most implemented utilitarian curricula, causing contrasting methods in the teaching field for those who trained in the United States and those trained abroad. There was a difference, however, between American universities and German universities, as Veysey explained, “German rhetoric about academic purpose appears to have centered upon three quite different conceptions: first, on the value of non-utilitarian learning, freely pursued without regard to the immediate needs of the surrounding society (hence “pure” learning, protected by Lehrfreheit); second, on the value of Wissenschaft, or investigation and writing in a general sense, as opposed to teaching (Wissenschaft did not necessarily connote empirical research; it could just as easily comprehend Hagelian philosophy); finally, on their epistemological side, German statements of academic aim continues to run toward some form of all-encompassing idealism.” Since learning in the late nineteenth century in the United States was of utilitarian orientation, there were only two universities dominated by the ideal of scientific research and established as centers for graduate study when they opened: Johns Hopkins University (1876) and Clark University (1889); institutions such as Harvard and Columbia were in the process of transforming into universities. Lawrence A. Cremin, “The Education of the Educating Profession,” The History of Higher Education, 2nd ed., ASHE Reader Series, ed. Lester F. Goodchild and Harold S. Wechsler (Boston, Massachusetts: Pearson Custom, 1997), 403.Google Scholar
  12. 25.
    Merle Curti and Roderick Nash, Philanthropy in the Shaping of American Higher Education (New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1965), 213.Google Scholar
  13. 26.
    Wickliffe Rose, “Summary of Operations of the Peabody Education Fund,” June 20, 1916, folder 5, box 1, Wickliffe Rose Papers, RAC. In 1910, Rose was elected president of the George Peabody College for Teachers. In 1913, he became a trustee for the GEB and later, in 1925, became president of the GEB. Rose noted that during the 47 years of the fund’s operation, “the Trustees contributed from the income of the Fund toward the encouragement of public education in the Southern states about three and three-quarter million dollars.” See Horace Mann Bond, The Education of the Negro in the American Social Order, 130–144; Curti and Nash, Philanthropy in the Shaping of American Higher Education, 173; Fosdick, Pringle, and Pringle, Adventures in Giving, 3; John Hope Franklin, From Slavery to Freedom: A History of American Negroes, 2nd ed. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1964), 378–384;Google Scholar
  14. and Gunnar Myrdal, An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy, vol. 2, with a new introduction by Sissela Bok (New York: Harper & Row, 1944, 1962; reprint, New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1996), 890.Google Scholar
  15. 28.
    Dwight Oliver Wendell Holmes, The Evolution of the Negro College (New York: Arno and The New York Times, 1969), 164–165.Google Scholar
  16. 29.
    John E. Fisher, The John F. Slater Fund: A Nineteenth Century Affirmative Action for Negro Education (Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, 1986), 3.Google Scholar
  17. 30.
    Bond, Education of the Negro in the American Social Order, 130– 144; Curti and Nash, Philanthropy in the Shaping of American Higher Education, 173; Roy E. Finkenbine, “Law, Reconstruction, and African American Education,” in Charity, Philanthropy, and Civility in American History, ed. Lawrence J. Friedman and Mark D. McGarvie (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 167; Fosdick, Pringle, and Pringle, Adventures in Giving, 3; Franklin, From Slavery to Freedom, 378–384; and Myrdal, American Dilemma, 890.Google Scholar
  18. 37.
    Bernard Alderson, Andrew Carnegie: The Man and His Work (New York: Doubleday, Page, 1908), 155.Google Scholar
  19. 38.
    Louis M. Hacker, The World of Andrew Carnegie, 1865–1901 (Philadelphia and New York: J. B. Lippincott, 1968), 364–367; “History of Carnegie Mellon,” http://www.cmu.edu/home/about/about_history.html; and Ellen Condliffe Lagerman, “Surveying the Professions,” in Goodchild and Wechsler, History of Higher Education, 394–402.Google Scholar
  20. 41.
    W. Bruce Leslie, “The Age of the College,” in Goodchild and Wechsler, History of Higher Education, 337. Also see the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Missions of the College Curriculum, (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1977).Google Scholar
  21. 51.
    John D. Rockefeller Jr. to John D. Rockefeller Sr., February 11, 1919, in “Dear Father” I “Dear Son:” Correspondence of John D. Rockefeller and John D. Rockefeller, Jr, ed. Joseph W. Ernst (New York: Fordham University Press in cooperation with Rockefeller Archive Center, 1994), 90.Google Scholar
  22. 54.
    Chernow, Titan, 481–483; Curti and Nash, Philanthropy in the Shaping of American Higher Education, 215; Fosdick, John D. Rockefeller, Jr., 117; Allan Nevins, John D. Rockefeller: The Heroic Age of American Enterprise, vol. 2 (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1940), 482–484;Google Scholar
  23. and Clarence A. Bacote, The Story of Atlanta University: A Century of Service, 1865–1965 (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1969), 248.Google Scholar
  24. 91.
    Anderson, Education of Blacks in the South, 251–252; Franklin, From Slavery to Freedom, 538–539; and Eric Anderson and Alfred A. Moss Jr., Dangerous Donations: Northern Philanthropy and Southern Black Education, 1902–1930, foreword by Louis R. Harlan (Missouri: University of Missouri Press, 1990), 205–206.Google Scholar
  25. 98.
    Both Morehouse and Spelman Colleges received money from the GEB by 1914. Benjamin Brawley, The History of Morehouse College (Atlanta, Georgia: Morehouse College, 1917), 107; John D. Rockefeller Jr. to the General Education Board, March 23, 1906, box 39, folder 360, Ga 10 Spelman College, 1902–1965, GEB, RAC; Abraham Flexner to John D. Rockefeller Jr., September 21, 1914, box 40, folder 362, ibid.; and Booker T. Washington to Andrew Carnegie, November 13, 1909, The Booker T. Washington Papers, 196.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Vida L. Avery 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vida L. Avery

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations