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Introduction

  • Vida L. Avery
Chapter
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Part of the Philanthropy and Education book series (PHILAED)

Abstract

It was springtime in Atlanta, the beginning of April. The harsh climate and the chill of winter had retreated, and the temperature had grown warmer. Seeds planted in previous seasons now produced fruits, and blossoming flowers bore new life—a new beginning. April 1, 1929, marked a beginning and new life of a different kind.

Keywords

Black People Missionary Society Philanthropic Organization Black Institution Cial Officer 
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Notes

  1. 1.
    Leroy Davis, A Clashing of the Soul: John Hope and the Dilemma of African American Leadership and Black Higher Education in the Early Twentieth Century, with a foreword by John Hope Franklin (Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 1998), 297.Google Scholar
  2. 4.
    Clifford M. Kuhn, Harlon E. Joye, and E. Bernard West, Living Atlanta: An Oral History of the City, 1914–1948, foreword by Michael Lomax (Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 1990), 158, 166;Google Scholar
  3. Clarence A. Bacote, The Story of Atlanta University: A Century of Service, 1865–1965 (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1969), 245–249;Google Scholar
  4. and Florence M. Read, The Story of Spelman College (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1961), 206–208.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    David Levering Lewis, W. E. B. Du Bois: Biography of a Race, 1868–1919 (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1993), 241;Google Scholar
  6. William H. Watkins, The White Architects of Black Education: Ideology and Power in America, 1865–1954 (New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 2001), 23.Google Scholar
  7. 6.
    James D. Anderson, The Education of Blacks in the South, 1860–1935 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988), 238.Google Scholar
  8. Industrial philanthropy refers to foundations such as the Peabody Educational Fund, the Slater Fund, Anna T. Jeanes Foundation, Phelps-Stokes Fund, Carnegie Foundation, Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial Fund, Julius Rosenwald Fund, and the General Education Board. W. E. B. Du Bois, The Souls of Black Folks, with an introduction by Herb Boyd (New York: Modern Library, Modern Library Edition, 1996), 53, 58;Google Scholar
  9. Carter G. Woodson, The Mis-Education of the Negro, with an introduction by H. Khalif Khalifah (Newport News, Virginia: United Brothers & Sisters Graphics & Printing, 1992), 27.Google Scholar
  10. This is the complete text as published in 1933. Du Bois argued that industrialists were interested in keeping blacks ignorant and disfranchised by providing only industrial education. Du Bois further maintained that the “money-makers” wished to use blacks as laborers. Similarly, Woodson argued that the system by which blacks were educated was one that perpetuated enslavement. The system Woodson referred to was one totally dominated by whites (e.g., funds, teachers, college presidents, etc.). Ibid., 276. It is noteworthy to mention Anderson supplied examples of blacks having agency on the K-12 educational level; blacks assisted in establishing schools and school systems for their own. See Anderson, Education of Blacks in the South, 148, Chap. 1, “Ex-Slaves and the Rise of Universal Education in the South, 1860–1880,” and Chap. 5, “Common Schools for Black Children, 1900–1935.” For this book, I define agency as “the assumed ability for individuals to shape the condition of their lives.” Meredith D. Gall, Walter R. Borg, and Joyce P. Gall, Educational Research: An Introduction, 6th ed. (White Plains, New York: Longman, 1996), 610.Google Scholar
  11. 7.
    Merle Curti and Roderick Nash, Philanthropy in the Shaping of American Higher Education (New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1965), 168, 185;Google Scholar
  12. Dwight Oliver Wendell Holmes, The Evolution of the Negro College (New York: Arno and The New York Times, 1969), 7;Google Scholar
  13. and Horace Mann Bond, The Education of the Negro in the American Social Order (New York: Octagon Books, 1970), 150.Google Scholar
  14. 8.
    Marybeth Gasman and Katherine Sedgwick, Uplifting a People. Essays on African American Philanthropy and Education (New York: Peter Lang, 2005). Particularly, See Chap. 1–3.Google Scholar
  15. 9.
    Edward A. Jones, A Candle in the Dark: A History of Morehouse College (Valley Forge, Pennsylvania: Judson, 1967), 121.Google Scholar
  16. 11.
    Rayford Logan, The Dictionary of American Negro Biography, ed. Rayford Logan and Michael R. Winston (New York: W. W. Norton, 1982), 323. See Davis, Clashing of the Soul, 256–263; Kuhn, Joye, and West, Living Atlanta, 131. Booker T. Washington High School in Atlanta, Georgia, was established in 1924 as Atlanta’s first public high school for blacks.Google Scholar
  17. 14.
    Eric Anderson and Alfred A. Moss Jr., Dangerous Donations: Northern Philanthropy and Southern Black Education, 1902–1930, foreword by Louis R. Harlan (Missouri: University of Missouri Press, 1990), 214.Google Scholar
  18. 15.
    For other examples of works using a single event as a departure to discuss cultural or historic events, see Clifford Geertz, “Deep Play on the Balinese Cockfights,” Daedelus 101 (Winter 1972), 1–37;Google Scholar
  19. Simon Schama, Dead Certainties: Unwarranted Speculations (New York: Vintage Books, 1991),Google Scholar
  20. and Mark Bauerlein, Negrophobia, A Race Riot in Atlanta, 1906 (San Francisco: Encounter Books, 2001).Google Scholar
  21. 16.
    Jacques Barzun and Henry F. Graff, The Modern Researcher (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1992), 253–254.Google Scholar
  22. 17.
    Andrew Carnegie, “Wealth,” North American Review, June 1889 [journal online], Cornell University Library, Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, accessed April 11, 2001, http://cdi.library.cornell.edu; John D. Rockefeller Sr., Random Reminiscences of Men and Events (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, Page & Company, 1913).Google Scholar
  23. 19.
    Ron Chernow, Titan: The Life of John D. Rockefeller, Sr. (New York: Random House, 1998);Google Scholar
  24. Ridgely Torrence, The Story of John Hope, with an introduction by Rayford Logan (New York: Macmillan, 1948; reprint, New York: Arno and The New York Times, 1969); and Davis, Clashing of the Soul.Google Scholar
  25. 20.
    James D. Anderson, “Philanthropic Control over Private Black Higher Education,” in Philanthropy and Cultural Imperialism, ed. Robert F. Arnove (Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1980), 152;Google Scholar
  26. Anderson, Education of Blacks in the South; Anderson and Moss Jr., Dangerous Donations; Curti and Nash, Philanthropy in the Shaping of American Higher Educationand Raymond B. Fosdick, Henry F. Pringle, and Katherine Douglas Pringle, Adventures in Giving: The Story of the General Education Board (New York: Harper & Row, 1962).Google Scholar
  27. 21.
    Bond, Education of the Negro in the American Social Order; John Hope Franklin, From Slavery to Freedom: A History of American Negroes, 2nd ed. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1964); Kuhn, Joye, and West, Living Atlanta; Lewis, W. E. B. Du Bois.Google Scholar
  28. 22.
    Bacote, Story of Atlanta University; Benjamin Brawley, The History of Morehouse College (Atlanta, Georgia: Morehouse College, 1917); Jones, Candle in the Dark; and Read, Story of Spelman College.Google Scholar

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© Vida L. Avery 2013

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