Advertisement

The Rise and Rise of the Global Anti-Corruption Movement

  • Dan Hough
Chapter
  • 317 Downloads
Part of the Political Corruption and Governance series book series (PCG)

Abstract

Corruption has been around since time immemorial, but systematic attempts to try and counteract it have not. On the contrary, what its supporters often call the ‘global anti-corruption movement’ and critics the ‘anti-corruption industry’ is a relatively new phenomenon. Indeed, it may well be possible to pinpoint the birth of cross-national attempts to co-ordinate analysis of, and responses to, corruption to one date; the 1st of October 1996. Not that attempts to tackle corruption started precisely then, but when James Wolfensohn, the then head of the World Bank, stood up and gave a speech denouncing what he termed the ‘cancer of corruption’, it became clear that for the international policy community tackling corruption was moving centre-stage.1

Keywords

United Nations Corrupt Practice International Country Risk Guide Global Competitiveness Report Global Corruption Barometer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    S. Sampson (2008), ‘Corruption and anti-corruption in South-East Europe: Landscapes and sites’, in L. de Sousa, P. Larmour and B. Hindess (eds) Governments, NGOs and Anti-Corruption: The New Integrity Warriors (London: Routledge), p. 175. For the speech itself see IMF (1996), ‘Summary Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Board of Governors’ (Washington D.C.: IMF), p.27. Available at http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/SUMMARY/51/pdf/part01.pdf, accessed on 5 December 2011.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    See for example S. Sampson (2007), Can the World Bank Do the Right Thing? When Anti-Corruption Movements Become Anti-Corruption Budget Lines, paper for American Anthropological Association annual meeting, Washington D.C., November 2007. Available at http://www.lunduniversity.lu.se/o.o.i.s?id=12683&postid=1146197, accessed on 6 December 2011.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. Johnston (2006), ‘From Thucydides to Mayor Daley: Bad politics, and a culture of corruption’, P.S. Political Science and Politics, 39 (4): 809.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    See for example N. Leff (1964), ‘Economic development through bureaucratic corruption’, American Behavioral Scientist, 8 (3): 8–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. D.H. Bayley (1966), ‘The effects of corruption in a developing nation’, Western Political Quarterly, 19 (4): 719–732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 5.
    P. Perry (1997), Political Corruption and Political Geography (Aldershot: Ashgate), p.38.Google Scholar
  7. 6.
    S. Huntington (1968), Political Order in Changing Societies (New Haven: Yale University Press), p.59.Google Scholar
  8. See also E. Brown and J. Cloke (2004), ‘Neoliberal reform, governance and corruption in the south: Assessing the international anti-corruption crusade’, Antipode, 36 (2): 280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 7.
    E. Harrison (2007), ‘Corruption’, Development in Practice, 17 (4/5): 675.Google Scholar
  10. 8.
    For analysis of some of these see M.J. Bull and J. Newell (eds) (2003), Corruption in Contemporary Politics (Basingstoke: Palgrave).Google Scholar
  11. 9.
    See C. Hotchkiss (1998), ‘The sleeping dog stirs: New signs of life in efforts to end corruption in international business’, Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, 17 (1), 108–115Google Scholar
  12. K.A. Elliot (2002), ‘Corruption as an international policy problem’, in A.J. Heidenheimer and M. Johnston (eds) Political Corruption: Concepts and Contexts (New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers), pp.925–941Google Scholar
  13. D. Schmidt (2007), ‘Anti-corruption: What do we know? Research on preventing corruption in the post-communist world’, Political Studies Review, 5 (2): 202–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 10.
    R. Williams (2000), ‘Introduction’, in R. Williams and A. Doig (eds) Controlling Corruption (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, volume 4), p.xiii.Google Scholar
  15. 11.
    S. Andersson and P.M. Heywood (2009), ‘The politics of perception: Use and abuse of Transparency International’s approach to measuring corruption’, Political Studies, 57 (4): 746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 12.
    M. Johnston (2005a), ‘Measuring the new corruption rankings: Implications for analysis and reform’, in A.J. Heidenheimer and M. Johnston (eds) Political Corruption: Concepts and Contexts (London: Transaction Publishers), pp.865–884.Google Scholar
  17. 14.
    S. Sampson (2010), ‘Diagnostics: Indicators and transparency in the anti-corruption industry’, in S. Jansen, E. Schroeter and N. Stehr (eds) Transparenz: multidisziplinaere Durchsichten durch Phoenomene und Theorien des Undurchsichtigen (Wiesbaden: VS Verlag), p.102.Google Scholar
  18. 20.
    S. Knack (2007), ‘Measuring corruption: A critique of indicators in Eastern Europe and Central Asia’, Journal of Public Policy, 27 (3): 263–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. T. Thompson and A. Shah (2005), Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index: Whose Perceptions are They Anyway? (Washington D.C.: World Bank).Google Scholar
  20. 33.
    See for example D. Kaufmann, A. Kraay and M. Mastruzzi (2007), The Worldwide Governance Indicators Project: Answering the Critics (Washington D.C.: World Bank), p.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 35.
    See A. Lopez-Claros, M.E. Porter, and K. Schwab (2005), Global Competitiveness Report, 2005–2006: Policies Underpinning Rising Prosperity (Basing-stoke: Palgrave Macmillan)Google Scholar
  22. IMD (2005), World Competitiveness Yearbook, 2005 (Lausanne: IMD), available at http://www01.imd.ch/wcc/ranking/, accessed on 7 December 2011.Google Scholar
  23. 36.
    See http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org/ and http://rechten.uvt.nl/icvs/pdffiles/ICVS2004_05.pdf, both accessed on 7 December 2011. See also J. Svensson (2005), ‘Eight questions about corruption’, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19 (3), 19–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 39.
    See for example B. Michael (2007), The Rise and Fall of the Anti-Corruption Industry: Toward Second Generation Anti-Corruption Reforms in Central and Eastern Europe (Paris: France); E. Brown and J. Cloke (2004), p.274; S. Sampson (2008), p.170.Google Scholar
  25. 40.
    H. Moroff and D. Schmidt-Pfister (2010), ‘Anti-corruption movements, mechanisms and machines — an introduction’, Global Crime, 11 (2): 90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 41.
    B. Michael and D. Bowser (2009), The Evolution of the Anti-Corruption Industry in the Third Wave of Anti-Corruption Work (New York: Columbia University), p.1Google Scholar
  27. B. Michael (2004), ‘The rapid rise of the anti-corruption Industry’, Local Governance Brief (Budapest: Open Society Institute).Google Scholar
  28. 46.
    S. Sampson (2008), p.171. See also A. Mungiu-Pippidi (2006), ‘Corruption: Diagnosis and treatment’, Joumal of Democracy, 17 (3): 86–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 47.
    D. Kaufmann (2009), ‘Aid effectiveness and governance: The good, the bad and the ugly’, Development Outreach (Washington D.C.: World Bank Institute, February), p.27.Google Scholar
  30. 48.
    J. Hopkin (2002), ‘States, markets and corruption: A review of some recent literature’, Review of International Political Economy, 9 (3): 574–576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 49.
    J. Hopkin, (2002), p.577. See also J. Buchanan, R. Tollison and G. Tullock (eds) (1980) Toward a Theory of the Rent-Seeking Society (College Station: Texas A & M Press).Google Scholar
  32. 50.
    A. Downs (1957), An Economic Theory of Democracy (New York: Harper and Row).Google Scholar
  33. 51.
    N. Zhong (2010), The Causes, Consequences and Cures of Corruption: A Review of Issues (Hong Kong: The Chinese University of Hong Kong), p.l. Available at http://www.usc.cuhk.edu.hk/PaperCollection/webmanager/wkfiles/7489_1_paper.pdf, accessed on 7 December 2011.Google Scholar
  34. 52.
    A. Alesina and G-M. Angeletos (2005), ‘Corruption, inequality and fairness’, Journal of Monetary Economics, 52 (7): 1241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 55.
    See for example S. Rose-Ackerman (1978), Corruption: A Study in Political Economy (New York: Academic Press)Google Scholar
  36. C. Rowley, R. Tollison and G. Tullock (eds) (1989), The Political Economy of Rent-Seeking (Boston: Kluwer)Google Scholar
  37. S. Rose-Ackerman (1999), Corruption and Government: Causes, Consequences and Reform (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. V. Tanzi (2000b), Policies, Institutions and the Dark Side of Economics (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar).Google Scholar
  39. 62.
    J. Saxton (1999), Can IMF Lending Promote Corruption? (Washington D.C.: US Congress, Joint Economic Committee), p.1.Google Scholar
  40. 63.
    See United Nations (1996), General Assembly Declaration Against Corruption and Bribery in International Commercial Transactions, Document A/RES/51/191. Available at http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/51/a51r191.htm, accessed on 8 December 2011.Google Scholar
  41. See also M. Bukovansky (2006), ‘The hollowness of anti-corruption discourse’, Review of International Political Economy, 13 (2): 186–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 66.
    See for example International Monetary Fund (1997b), IMF Adopts Guidelines Regarding Governance Issues (Washington D.C.: IMF News Brief, No. 97/15), available at http://www.imf.org/external/np/sec/nb/1997/NB9715.HTM, accessed on 8 December 2011Google Scholar
  43. P. Mauro (1995), ‘Corruption and growth’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 110(3): 681–712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. P. Mauro (1997) Why Worry About Corruption? (Washington D.C.: IMF, Economic Issues Series, Number 6)Google Scholar
  45. A. Shleifer and R.W. Vishny (1993), ‘Corruption’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 108 (3): 599–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. V. Tanzi (1994), Corruption, Government Activities and Markets (Washington D.C.: IMF, Working Paper 94/99)Google Scholar
  47. V. Tanzi and H. Davoodi (1998), Roads to Nowhere: How Corruption in Public Investment Hurts Growth (Washington D. C: IMF, Economic Issues Series, number 12)Google Scholar
  48. F. Vogl (1998), ‘The supply side of global bribery’, Finance and Development, 35 (2): 55–64.Google Scholar
  49. 67.
    Interim Committee Declaration (1996a), Partnership for Sustainable Global Growth (Washington D.C.: IMF)Google Scholar
  50. See also International Monetary Fund (1997a) The Role of the IMF in Governance Issues — Guidance Note (Washington D.C.: IMF), available at http://www.imf.org/external/np/sec/nb/1997/NB9715.HTM, accessed on 8 December 2011.Google Scholar
  51. 68.
    M. Bukovansky (2006), p.190. See also International Monetary Fund (2003), IMF and Good Governance: A Factsheet (Washington D.C.: IMF), available at http://www.imf.org/external/np/exr/facts/gov.htm, accessed on 8 December 2011.Google Scholar
  52. 69.
    See C. Schiller (2000), Improving Governance and Fighting Corruption: An IMF Perspective (Washington D.C.: IMF) for a good summary of what the IMF believes corruption’s negative effects to be. Available on http://www.oas.org/juridico/english/imf2000.htm, accessed on 8 December 2011.Google Scholar
  53. 71.
    V. Tanzi (1994); V. Tanzi (1998), Corruption Around the World: Causes, Consequences, Scope and Cures (Washington D.C.: IMF, Working Paper 98/63), pp.3 and 10–16.Google Scholar
  54. 72.
    A significant body of research rejected this even before the Bank started talking explicitly about corruption. See for example D. Gillies (1996), ‘Human rights, democracy and good governance: Stretching the World Bank’s policy frontiers’, in J. Griesgraber and B. Gunter (eds) The World Bank: Lending on a Global Scale (London: Pluto Press), pp.104–141Google Scholar
  55. M. Miller-Adams (1999), The World Bank: New Agendas in a Changing World (London: Routledge).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 73.
    H. Marquette (2004), ‘The creeping politicisation of the World Bank: The case of corruption’, Political Studies, 52(3): 413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. World Bank (1997), Helping Countries Combat Corruption: The Role of the World Bank (Washington D.C.: World Bank), p.2.Google Scholar
  58. 74.
    See M. Szeftel (1998), ‘Misunderstanding African politics: Corruption and the governance agenda’, Review of African Political Economy, 76: 221–240; E. Brown and J. Cloke (2004), p.289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 75.
    S. Riley (1998), ‘The political economy of anti-corruption strategies in Africa’, in M. Robinson (ed.) Corruption and Development (London: Frank Cass), p.138.Google Scholar
  60. 77.
    H. Marquette (2004), p.413. See also H. Marquette (2003), Corruption, Development and Politics: The Role of the World Bank (Basingstoke: Palgrave).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 78.
    A. Shah (2007), ‘Tailoring the fight against corruption to country circumstances’, in A. Shah (ed.) Performance Accountability and Combating Corruption (Washington D.C.: World Bank), p.234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Dan Hough 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dan Hough
    • 1
  1. 1.University of SussexUK

Personalised recommendations