This chapter builds on the arguments advanced earlier in the book that voluntary agencies should not be viewed as bureaucracies but have distinctive, ambiguous characteristics (Chapter 7); are not driven by the norms and practices of the market (Chapter 6); and have purposes that go beyond the simply instrumental (Chapter 10). It argues that the approaches and techniques commonly used in the management of business (and adopted by statutory agencies) are not only unhelpful but also damaging when applied to the leadership and management of voluntary sector organisations. It begins by returning to the characterisation of the most common manifestation of the bureaucratic model which was introduced in Chapter 7— command and control — to explain why it and the managerial approaches that flow from it are inappropriate ways of organising voluntary action. The chapter then looks in turn at the application of four specific managerial techniques — strategic planning, performance and quality management, marketing, and mergers and alliances — in voluntary sector organisations and concludes by suggesting an alternative approach to leading and managing in the voluntary sector.
KeywordsStrategic Planning Voluntary Action Psychological Contract Voluntary Organisation Alternative Perspective
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