The Intersecting Roles of Religion, Culture, and Spirituality in Feminist Popular Education in a Post-9/11 US Context

Part of the Comparative Feminist Studies Series book series (CFS)


Power relations based on gender, race, class, religion, and sexual orientation are present in every culture. These power relations shift to some degree in response to political forces and cataclysmic events. For example, the aftermath of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks within the United States brought unwarranted fear of Muslims and the targeting of those who appeared different, based on religion as well as color and culture. Activists and educators began to respond seeing the need to address structural inequities based on religion, as well as gender, race, and class. Concomitantly, as part of culturally responsive feminist and adult education practice, there was developing attention to the role of spirituality and religion as a way for learners to ground themselves and claim internal power related to these aspects of identity, as they engaged in making change in the world (English, Fenwick, and Parsons 2003; Tisdell 2003; Charaniya and West Walsh 2004). While Shirley Walters and Linzi Manicom (1996) touched on this briefly in their earlier work, other feminist writers have discussed the role of spirituality in activist education (Fernandes 2003); some authors have noted the way it comes up in their research participants’ lives (Tisdell and Tolliver 2003; English 2005; Merriam and Ntseane 2008).


African American Woman Adult Education Religious Diversity Religious Background Faith Tradition 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Linzi Manicom and Shirley Walters 2012

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