In the preceding chapters, I have reflected on a situation in which normative aspirations for the greening of citizenship, which outlined a clear emancipatory agenda in the context of the industrial state, have seemingly come to assume a far more ambiguous meaning in the context of the postindustrial ecomodernizing state. As an alternative to normative theories of green citizenship, I have developed a critical, pragmatic and realist approach that has supported interpretation of the greening of citizenship as a partially successful project that can helpfully be understood in relation to broader new social and coun-tercultural movements that spread across the West from the 1970s onwards. In this perspective, efforts to disrupt the binary oppositions of nature/culture dualism and the public-private split, as well as calls to move beyond social contractualism and state territorialism while embracing ethico-moral awareness of the finiteness of ecospace no longer necessarily support the political critique of injustice: the globally competitive, postindustrial ecostate and the transnational forms of ‘finance’ capitalism that it supports also embrace these norms. This transformation in the status of hitherto emancipatory aspirations has been conceptualized in terms of three dimensions of society: ideology, the state and citizenship.
KeywordsNormative Theory Social Bond Political Community Early 21st Century Political Obligation
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